Module 15: Chemical Equilibrium

Forward reaction
A chemical reaction symbolized by a chemical equation in which the reactants and product are separated by an arrow that points to the right, toward the products.
(491)
Reverse reaction
A chemical reaction symbolized by an equation in which the products of a forward reaction have become the reactants, and the reactants are now the products. This is indicated by an arrow that points toward the left.
(491)
Chemical equilibrium
Point at which both the forward and reverse reactions in an equation have equal reaction rates. [When this occurs, the amounts of each substance in the reaction will not change, despite the fact that both reactions still proceed.]
(492)
Equilibrium constant
A value that describes the concentrations at which a reaction comes to equilibrium. The equilibrium constant varies with temperature.
(496)
When K is large, the equilibrium is weighted toward the [products/reactants] side of the equation.
products
(498)
When K is small, the equilibrium is weighted toward the [products/reactants] side of the equation.
reactants
(498)
When K is near unity, the equilibrium is:
balanced between reactants and products.
(498)

For the generic chemical equilibrium reaction

 

aA + bB ↔ cC + dD

 

we define the equilibrium constant

by what equation?

K = [C]c[D]d ÷ [A]a[B]b

 

(496)

When a solid appears

in a chemical equilibrium,

it [is/is not] included in  Equation 15.2.

is not.

(500)

When a liquid appears

in a chemical equation,

it [is/is not] included in Equation 15.2.

It is not included. 

[This applies only to the liquid phase; it does not apply to the aqueous phase.]

(500)

LeChatelier’s Principle:
When a stress (such as a change in _______, ________, or _______) is applied to an equilibrium, the reaction will shift in a way that relieves the _________ and restores the __________.

When a stress (such as a change in concentration, pressure, or temperature) is applied to an equilibrium, the reaction will shift in a way that relieves the stress and restores the equilibrium.

(501)

LeChatelier’s Principle ignores

__________ and __________

as a source of stress to the equilibrium.

solids and liquids

(508)

When an equilibrium is subjected to an increase in pressure, it will shift [toward/away from] the side with the largest number of gas molecules.

away from

(508)

If pressure decreases,an equilibrium will shift [toward/away from]

the side with the largest number

of gas molecules.

 

toward

(508)

When temperature is raised,an equilibrium will shift[toward/away from]

the side of the equation

that contains energy.

away from

(510)

When temperature is lowered,

an equilibrium will shift

[toward/away from]

the side of the equation

that contains energy.

toward

(510)

Acid ionization reaction

The reaction in which

an H+ separates from an acid molecule

so that it can be donated

in another reaction.

(514)

An acid whose ionization reaction

works very well

is said to be a _____________.

strong acid

(514)

An acid whose ionization reaction

does not produce many H+ ions

is said to be a ____________.

weak acid

(514)

Acid ionization constant

The equilibrium constant

for an acid’s ionization reaction.

(514)

If the ionization constant of an acid is large, the acid is considered a [strong/weak] acid.

strong

(515)

If the ionization constant of an acid

is not large, the acid is considered

to be a [strong/weak] acid.

weak

(515)

In general,

the larger the ionization constant,

the [stronger/weaker] the acid.

stronger

(515)

pH scale

A scale that measures

the acidity of a solution.;

The lower the pH,

the more acidic the solution.

(516)

The letters “pH” stand for what?

potential hydrogen

(516)

A pH of 7 indicates a solution that is

[acidic, basic, neutral].

neutral

(516)

x

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