Module 16: Reduction/Oxidation Reactions

oxidation number

The charge that

an atom in a molecule would develop

if the most electronegative atoms in the molecule took the shared electrons from the less electronegative atoms. (525)

The sum of all oxidation numbers in a molecule must equal ________________.

the charge of that molecule.

 

(526)

1. When a substance has

only one type of atom in it,

the oxidation number for that atom

is equal to the _________ of the substance

divided by ___________________________.

When a substance has only one type of atom in it the oxidation number for that atom is equal to the charge of the substance divided by the number of atoms present.

(526)

2. Group 1A metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr) always have oxidation numbers of ___

in molecules that contain more than

one type of atom.

+1

 

(526)

3. Group 2A metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) always have oxidation numbers of ____ in molecules that contain more than

one type of atom.

+2

 

(526)

4. Fluorine always has a ___ oxidation number in molecules that contain

more than one type of atom.

-1 (526)

*5. When grouped with just one other atom that happens to be a metal,

H has an oxidation number of ____.

In all other cases in which it is grouped

with other atoms, H has

an oxidation number of ____.

-1, +1

 

(526)

*6. Oxygen has an oxidation number of ___ in molecules that contain more than one type of atom.

-2

 

(526)

*7. If all else fails, assume that the atom’s oxidation number is the same as what it would take on in an _______ ___________. The atoms that are

most likely to follow this rule

are in groups ____, _____, and _____.

ionic compound,

3A, 6A, and 7A.

;

(526)

Oxidation
Process by which an atom loses electrons. (531)
Reduction
Process by which an atom gains electrons. (531)

When a redox reaction occurs,

there will always be

one atom that is __________

and one atom that is ________.

oxidized,

reduced

(535)

Anode

The negative side of a battery, the side at which oxidation occurs.

(538)

Anion

A negative ion

(538)

Cathode

Positive side of a battery, the electrode at which reduction occurs.

(538)

Cation

A positive ion

(538)

Galvanic cell

An electricity-producing cell

that runs on a redox reaction.

(538)

Electrode

An electrical conductor

used to make contact

with a nonmetallic part of a circuit.

(539)

Lead-acid battery

;

A battery that runs on the oxidation of lead and the reduction of lead (IV) oxide

in the presence of sulfuric acid.

(542)

Dry cell
A battery made with no aqueous solutions. (544)
Alkaline dry cell

A dry cell made with

a potassium hydroxide salt bridge.

(544)

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