Module 2: Energy, Heat and Temperature

The ability to do work (37)
Energy

The force applied to an object

X

the distance that the object travels

parallel to that force (37)

Work

Energy that is transferred

as a consequence

of temperature differences (38)

Heat

Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

It can only change form. (40)

First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy that is stored (40)
Potential energy
Energy that is in motion (40)
Kinetic energy
Hypothesis that has been confirmed by experimental data (39)
Theory
An educated guess that attempts to explain observations  (39)
Hypothesis
A description of the natural world that has been confirmed by an enormous amount of data (39)
Scientific law
The metric unit for energy (40)
Joule
A temperature scale defined so that water freezes at 32° and boils at 212° (41)
Fahrenheit
A temperature scale defined so that water freezes at 0° and boils at 100° (41)
Celsius
The absolute temperature scale: It is not possible to reach or go below 0° on this scale.  (41)
Kelvin

The process of using

certain physical measurements

to define the scale of a measuring device (42)

Calibration
The amount of heat necessary to warm 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius (48)
calorie (cal)
4.184 Joules
1 calorie
1000 chemistry calories (cal)
1 food calorie (Cal)
The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1° Celsius (49)
Specific heat

Formula for

specific heat of water (53)

1.000 X     cal  

           g.0 C

 

or


4.184 X    J  

            g.0 C

 

An experimental process

that measures the heat

released or absorbed

during a chemical or physical change (53)

Calorimetry

An experimental device

that measures the heat

released or absorbed

during a physical or chemical change (3)

Calorimeter
Calorimetry equation (54)
-qobject = qwater + qcalorimeter
x

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