# Module 2: Energy, Heat and Temperature

 The ability to do work (37)
 Energy
 The force applied to an object X the distance that the object travels parallel to that force (37)
 Work
 Energy that is transferred as a consequence of temperature differences (38)
 Heat
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only change form. (40)
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Energy that is stored (40)
 Potential energy
 Energy that is in motion (40)
 Kinetic energy
 Hypothesis that has been confirmed by experimental data (39)
 Theory
 An educated guess that attempts to explain observations  (39)
 Hypothesis
 A description of the natural world that has been confirmed by an enormous amount of data (39)
 Scientific law
 The metric unit for energy (40)
 Joule
 A temperature scale defined so that water freezes at 32° and boils at 212° (41)
 Fahrenheit
 A temperature scale defined so that water freezes at 0° and boils at 100° (41)
 Celsius
 The absolute temperature scale: It is not possible to reach or go below 0° on this scale.  (41)
 Kelvin
 The process of using certain physical measurements to define the scale of a measuring device (42)
 Calibration
 The amount of heat necessary to warm 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius (48)
 calorie (cal)
 4.184 Joules
 1 calorie
 1000 chemistry calories (cal)
 1 food calorie (Cal)
 The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1° Celsius (49)
 Specific heat
 Formula for specific heat of water (53)
 1.000 X     cal              g.0 C   or 4.184 X    J               g.0 C
 An experimental process that measures the heat released or absorbed during a chemical or physical change (53)
 Calorimetry
 An experimental device that measures the heat released or absorbed during a physical or chemical change (3)
 Calorimeter
 Calorimetry equation (54)
 -qobject = qwater + qcalorimeter
x

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