Module 3: Atoms and Molecules

The idea that substances are composed of long unbroken blobs of matter (69)
Continuous theory of matter

The idea that substances are composed

of tiny, individual particles

like grains of sand (70)

Discontinuous theory of matter

Matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms. (70)

 

Law of Mass Conservation

The process by which

a substance is broken down

into its constituent elements (74)

Decomposition

Any substance

that cannot be decomposed into

less massive substances  (74)

Element

An element that

tends to give up its electrons. (77)

[Found on the left side of the jagged line on the Periodic  Table of Elements, with the exception of hydrogen.]

Metal

An element that tends to take electrons from other elements.  (77)

[Found on the right side of the jagged line on the Periodic Table of Elements.  Hydrogen is also a non-metal, even though it is on the left side of the jagged line.]

Nonmetal

Elements found

along the stairstep line

that distinguishes

metals from nonmetals

Metalloids:

Boiron

Silicon

Germanium

Arsenic

Antimony

Tellurium

Polonium

Substances that

can be decomposed into elements

by chemical means

Compounds

The proportion ofelements

in any compound

is always the same. (78)

The Law of Definite Proportions

If two elements combine

to form different compounds,

the ratio of masses of the 2nd element that react with fixed masses of the 1st element will be a simple,

whole-number ratio. (82)

Law of Multiple Proportions

More than one atom bound together

to form a compound (85)

Molecule
Abbreviation for an element (87)
Chemical symbol
Notation that indicates the number of type of each element in a compound (86)
Chemical formula
Compound formed by ions (87)
Ionic compound

Compound formed by

atoms that share electrons (87)

Covalent compound
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