Module 7: Atomic Structure

Another name for a Crookes tube
Cathode ray tube
Like charges do this to each other. (204)
Repel
Opposite charges do this to each other. (204)
Attract
Two types of electrical charge (203)
Positive, negative

Matter which

has no overall electrical charge

is said to be ________.  (203)

Neutral

One of the 3 particles

that make up the atom. 

It is negatively charged and

orbits the nucleus of the atom. (205)

Electron

One of the three particles

that make up the atom. 

It is positively charged and

is in nucleus of the atom. (205)

Proton

One of the three particles

that make up the atom. 

It is electrically neutral and is

in the nucleus of the atom. (205)

Neutron

An atom’s ______ ________

tells you

how many protons it contains. (205)

Atomic number
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. (206)
Isotopes

Total number

of neutrons and protons

in an atom

(207)

Mass number

Process by which the abundance

of one isotope in an element is increased.; Typically used in order to make

fuel for nuclear bombs. (208)

Isotopic enrichment
A constructed image of something we cannot see with our eyes (209)
Model
Another name for the Rutherford model. (211)
Planetary model

A model that said

the atom is made of a dense,

positively-charged nucleus

with electrons orbiting the nucleus

in circles. (211)

Rutherford model

Center of the atom.;

Contains the neutrons and protons. (212)

Nucleus
A “particle” of light. (213)
Photon

The theory that

light sometimes behaves as a particle

and sometimes behaves as a wave.

(213)

Particle/Wave Duality Theory

Distance between crests (or troughs)

of a wave. (214)

Wavelength

A measure of the

height of the crests or

the depths of the troughs

on a wave (214)

Amplitude

Range of light wavelengths

that are visible to the human eye (215)

Visible spectrum

A measurable quantity in nature

that does not change (216)

Physical constant

Number of wave crests (or troughs)

that pass a given point

each second (217)

Frequency

Standard unit for frequency

(217)

Hertz (Hz)

1/second

When W is large, f is small.

When w is small, F is large.

When two quantities behave like this,

we say that

they are _________; __________.

(219)

Inversely related

The total range

of wavelengths of light

that come from the sun

(219)

Electromagnetic spectrum

As a light wave’s frequency increases,

its _________ also increases.

As a light wave’s frequency decreases,

its ________ also decreases.

(220)

Energy, energy

As a light wave’s wavelength increases,

its energy _________.

As a light wave’s wavelength decreases,

its energy _________.

(220)

Decreases, increases

Another term for light,

including all wavelengths,

both visible and not visible. (221)

Electromagnetic radiation

The physical constant that relates the energy of light to its frequency:

6.63 X 10-34 J/Jz

(221)

Planck’s constant

Cells on the eye’s retina that

detect low levels of light (223)

Rods

Cells on the eye’s retina that

detect different energies of light. 

These cells are responsible for

our ability to see colors. (223)

Cones
Device that analyzes light emitted or absorbed by a substance (225)
Spectrometer

Process by which individual

wavelengths of light emitted by a substance are analyzed. 

This process can be used to

identify the elements in a substance. (225)

Spectroscopy

The assumption that a physical quantity (such as energy) cannot have any value, but is restricted to have

only discrete values (226)

Quantum assumption

When an electron moves

from an orbit close to the nucleus

to an orbit far from the nucleus,

we say that the electron

has been _________. (226)

Excited

When an electron moves

from an orbit far from the nucleus

to an orbit close to the nucleus,

we say it has _________. (227)

De-excited

The modern-day

model of the atom in which

electrons whirl around the nucleus

in various paths called “orbitals.” (228)

Quantum mechanical model

A specif shape that confines

the position of an electron

relative to the nucleus. (228)

Orbital
Spherical-shaped orbital
s orbital

Dumb-bell shaped orbital. 

There are none of these

on the first energy level of the atom.

p orbital

All forms of matter

try to stay in this state. (231)

Lowest possible energy state

(also known as “ground state”)

The lowest possible energy state

for a given substance (232)

Ground state
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