Module 8: Molecular Structure

The electrons that

exist farthest from an atom’s nucleus.; Generally the electrons with the

highest energy level number (248)

Valence electrons

An atom’s chemistry is

mostly determined

by the number of _________  ____________ it has. (248)

Valence electrons

Atoms in the same column

of the periodic chart have

the same number of _________ ________

and thus have very similar ________. (248)

Valence electrons, chemistry
Substances that rarely participate in chemical reactions (249)
Inert substances

For atoms in groups 1A-8A,

the number of the column in which the atom is located on the periodic chart equals the number of _____  ______ the atom has. (249)

Valence electrons

Most atoms strive to attain

eight valence  electrons.

This is called the _______ rule.  (249)

Octet

A schematic representation of

the valence electrons

in an atom or molecule (249)

Lewis structure
Another name for a Lewis structure (250)
Electron-dot diagram

In ionic compounds,

_______ try to gain electrons

so that their Lewis structure has

eight dots around it. (252)

nonmetals

In ionic compounds,

________ try to lose electrons

until their Lewis structure has

no dots around it. (252)

metals

Positive ions have the same name as the ______ from which they came.

(253)

 

atom

Negative ions have

an _____ suffix added

to the name of the atom

from which they came. (253)

“ide”

An element that rests

in the “d-orbital” block of the

Periodic Table of Elements (257)

Transition metal

Process by which

an atom turns into an ion

by gaining or losing electrons (258)

Ionization

Amount of energy needed

in order to take an electron away

from an atom (258)

Ionization potential

In general, the ionization potential

of atoms increases

from the _____ of the periodic chart

to the ______ of the periodic chart. (259)

left, right

A characteristic of atoms

that varies regularly

across the periodic chart (259)

Periodic property

In general, the ionization potential

of atoms decreases

from the _____ of the periodic chart to

the ______ of the periodic chart. (259)

top, bottom

A measure of

how strongly an atom

attracts extra electrons to itself

(261)

Electronegativity

In general, the electronegativity of atoms increases from _____ to ______

on the periodic chart. (261)

left, right

In general, the electronegativity of atoms decreases from ____ to ________

on the periodic chart. (261)

top, bottom

The average radius of an atom

(265)

Atomic radius

In general, the atomic radius (increases/decreases)

from top to bottom on the periodic chart.

(262)

increases

A shared pair of valence electrons

that holds atoms together

in covalent compounds (265)

Covalent bond

The atoms in covalent compounds share electrons to form _________.

The atoms in ionic compounds give and take electrons to form ______.

molecules, ions

A total of four electrons

shared between atoms (270)

Double bond

A  total of six electrons

shared between atoms (270)

Triple bond
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