# Modules 8-13

 Acid
 a compound that donates H+ ions to a solution; pH <7
 Base
 a compound that removes H+ ions from aqueous solution or donates OH-; pH >7
 pH
 describes how acidic or basic a solution is
 Thermochemistry
 the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
 Titration
 the process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution
 Kinetic Molecular Theory
 the theory that all matter is composed of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions
 Charles’ Law
 direct relationship between temperature and volume
 Boyle’s Law
 inverse relationship between volume and pressure
 Equilibrium
 when the forward rate of a chemical reaction is the same as the reverse rate. This only takes place in reversible reactions because these are the only type of reaction in which the forward and backward reactions can both take place.
 Oxidation Number
 the apparent charge on an atom.
 Stoichiometry
 the art of figuring how much stuff you’ll make in a chemical reaction from the amount of each reagent you start with.
 Redox Reaction
 reaction that has both an oxidation and reduction.
 Oxidation
 when a substance loses electrons.
 Indicator
 compound that turns different colors at different pH values. We generally like to have the color change at a pH of around seven because that’s where the equivalence point of a titration is.
 Half-life
 time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. When talking about chemical reactions, it’s the amount of time required to make half the reagent react.
 Activation Energy
 minimum amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place.
 Gay-Lussac’s Law
 pressure of a gas varies directly with its temperature when volume is held constant
 Solvation Process
 Ionic crystal is immersed in a solvent Ions become solvated and break away from the crystal The crystal is completly broken apart as all of the ions become solvated, and a solution of solvated (aqueous) ions results
 Nonelectrolyte
 solute is dissolved in a solvent, it will not conduct electricity.
 Oil is ______ to Water
 immiscible
x

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