Modules 8-13

Acid
a compound that donates H+ ions to a solution; pH <7
Base
a compound that removes H+ ions from aqueous solution or donates OH-; pH >7
pH
describes how acidic or basic a solution is
Thermochemistry
the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
Titration
the process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution
Kinetic Molecular Theory
the theory that all matter is composed of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions
Charles’ Law
direct relationship between temperature and volume
Boyle’s Law
inverse relationship between volume and pressure
Equilibrium
when the forward rate of a chemical reaction is the same as the reverse rate. This only takes place in reversible reactions because these are the only type of reaction in which the forward and backward reactions can both take place.
Oxidation Number
the apparent charge on an atom.
Stoichiometry
the art of figuring how much stuff you’ll make in a chemical reaction from the amount of each reagent you start with.
Redox Reaction
reaction that has both an oxidation and reduction.
Oxidation
when a substance loses electrons.
Indicator
compound that turns different colors at different pH values. We generally like to have the color change at a pH of around seven because that’s where the equivalence point of a titration is.
Half-life
time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. When talking about chemical reactions, it’s the amount of time required to make half the reagent react.
Activation Energy
minimum amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place.
Gay-Lussac’s Law
pressure of a gas varies directly with its temperature when volume is held constant
Solvation Process
Ionic crystal is immersed in a solvent

Ions become solvated and break away from the crystal

The crystal is completly broken apart as all of the ions become solvated, and a solution of solvated (aqueous) ions results

Nonelectrolyte
solute is dissolved in a solvent, it will not conduct electricity.
Oil is ______ to Water
immiscible
x

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