# Modules 8-13

 Ideal Gases
 -Molecules are in constant random motion with no attractions-Molecules have elastic collisions-Avg kinetic energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature-Molecules have an insignificant volume
 Variables of Gas
 1. Volume-in Liters2. Pressure-in atm,kPa,mmHg,torr,PSI3. Temperature-in Kelvin4. Amount-moles(possibly mass or density)
 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
 -Pressure-1atm=101.325kPa=760mmHg=760torr-Temperature-0C=273K
 Volume and Pressure
 Inversely proportional. P1V1=P2V2
 Volume and Temperature
 Direct relationship. V1T2=V2T1
 Pressure and Temperature
 Directly Proportional. P1T2=P2T1
 Combined Gas Law
 Combines all previous gas laws. P1V1T2=P2V2T1
 The volume of a gas(V) is directly proportional to the amount of a gas(n) at a constant temperature and pressure. V1/n1=V2/n2
 Ideal Gas Law
 Combination of all gas laws. PV=nRT
 Vapor Pressure
 Pressure exerted by a vapor, or gas, in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase. Increases with temperature.
 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
 When two or more gases are present, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases. Pt=P1+P2+P3…
 Solute
 Substance to be dissolved
 Solvent
 Substance doing the dissolving
 Miscible
 Liquid will dissolve in another liquid
 Immiscible
 Liquid will not dissolve in another liquid
 Concentrated
 Relatively large amount of solute in a given amount of solvent.
 Dilute
 Small amount of solute in a given amount of solvent.
 Insoluble
 Doesn’t dissolve in solvent
 Soluble
 Able to dissolve in solvent
 Solvation
 Process by which the solvent surrounds the solute particles.
 Saturated Solution
 No more solute can be added. Has reached equilibrium.
 Unsaturated Solution
 Supersaturated Solution
 Amount of solute exceeds the limit.
 Solution Equilibrium
 Dissolution and crystallization occur at the same rate.
 Electrolyte
 Ionic solutes dissolved in polar solvents. Able to conduct electricity.
 Nonelectrolyte
 Molecular solutes dissolved in solvents. Unable to conduct electricity.
 Solubility
 Maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in 100g of a solvent at a given temperature.
 Factors Affecting Solubility
 -Nature of the solute-Nature of the solvent-Temperature
 Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution
 -Agitation-Increase in temperature-Increase in surface area
 Concentration
 Amount of solute in a solvent
 Molarity
 Unit of concentration that compares moles of solute against liters of solution. M1V1=M2V2
 Colligative Properties
 Don’t depend on identity, but on number of particles
 Boiling Point Elevation (BPE)
 Addition of solute raises boiling point
 Freezing Point Depression (FPD)
 Addition of solute lowers freezing point
 Molality
 moles of solute/kg of solvent
 ?FP
 mKfi
 ?BP
 mKbi-
 Acid
 -Hydrogen or Hydronium-Sour-Sting-Weak to strong electrolytes-React with metals to form H2-Litmus-red-Phenolphthalein-clear-pH less than 7
 Base
 -Hydroxide ion-Bitter-Slippery,slimy-Weak to strong electrolytes-No reaction with metals-Litmus-blue-Phenolphthalein-pink-pH greater than 7
 Arrhenius Acid
 -Produce H+ in solution-Generally at front of formula
 Arrhenius Base
 -Produce OH- in solution
 Bronsted-Lowry Theory
 -Acid-H+ donor-Base-H+ acceptor-Conjugate base pairs
 Lewis Theory
 -More general than other theories-Acid-electron pair acceptor-Base-electron pair donor
 pH
 -Parts hydronium-pH=-log[H3O]
 pOH
 -Parts hydroxide-pOH=-log[OH-]
x

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