Modules 8-13

Ideal Gases
-Molecules are in constant random motion with no attractions
-Molecules have elastic collisions
-Avg kinetic energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
-Molecules have an insignificant volume
Variables of Gas
1. Volume-in Liters
2. Pressure-in atm,kPa,mmHg,torr,PSI
3. Temperature-in Kelvin
4. Amount-moles(possibly mass or density)
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
-Pressure-1atm=101.325kPa=760mmHg=760torr
-Temperature-0C=273K
Volume and Pressure
Inversely proportional. P1V1=P2V2
Volume and Temperature
Direct relationship. V1T2=V2T1
Pressure and Temperature
Directly Proportional. P1T2=P2T1
Combined Gas Law
Combines all previous gas laws. P1V1T2=P2V2T1
Avogadro’s Law
The volume of a gas(V) is directly proportional to the amount of a gas(n) at a constant temperature and pressure. V1/n1=V2/n2
Ideal Gas Law
Combination of all gas laws. PV=nRT
Vapor Pressure
Pressure exerted by a vapor, or gas, in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase. Increases with temperature.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
When two or more gases are present, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases. Pt=P1+P2+P3…
Solute
Substance to be dissolved
Solvent
Substance doing the dissolving
Miscible
Liquid will dissolve in another liquid
Immiscible
Liquid will not dissolve in another liquid
Concentrated
Relatively large amount of solute in a given amount of solvent.
Dilute
Small amount of solute in a given amount of solvent.
Insoluble
Doesn’t dissolve in solvent
Soluble
Able to dissolve in solvent
Solvation
Process by which the solvent surrounds the solute particles.
Saturated Solution
No more solute can be added. Has reached equilibrium.
Unsaturated Solution
More solute can be added.
Supersaturated Solution
Amount of solute exceeds the limit.
Solution Equilibrium
Dissolution and crystallization occur at the same rate.
Electrolyte
Ionic solutes dissolved in polar solvents. Able to conduct electricity.
Nonelectrolyte
Molecular solutes dissolved in solvents. Unable to conduct electricity.
Solubility
Maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in 100g of a solvent at a given temperature.
Factors Affecting Solubility
-Nature of the solute
-Nature of the solvent
-Temperature
Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution
-Agitation
-Increase in temperature
-Increase in surface area
Concentration
Amount of solute in a solvent
Molarity
Unit of concentration that compares moles of solute against liters of solution. M1V1=M2V2
Colligative Properties
Don’t depend on identity, but on number of particles
Boiling Point Elevation (BPE)
Addition of solute raises boiling point
Freezing Point Depression (FPD)
Addition of solute lowers freezing point
Molality
moles of solute/kg of solvent
?FP
mKfi
?BP
mKbi-
Acid
-Hydrogen or Hydronium
-Sour
-Sting
-Weak to strong electrolytes
-React with metals to form H2
-Litmus-red
-Phenolphthalein-clear
-pH less than 7
Base
-Hydroxide ion
-Bitter
-Slippery,slimy
-Weak to strong electrolytes
-No reaction with metals
-Litmus-blue
-Phenolphthalein-pink
-pH greater than 7
Arrhenius Acid
-Produce H+ in solution
-Generally at front of formula
Arrhenius Base
-Produce OH- in solution
Bronsted-Lowry Theory
-Acid-H+ donor
-Base-H+ acceptor
-Conjugate base pairs
Lewis Theory
-More general than other theories
-Acid-electron pair acceptor
-Base-electron pair donor
pH
-Parts hydronium
-pH=-log[H3O]
pOH
-Parts hydroxide
-pOH=-log[OH-]
x

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