Molecular Geometry and Bond Theories

bond angles
the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in a molecule
VSEPR model
a model that accounts for the geometric arrangements of shared and unshared electron pairs around a central atom in terms of the repulsions between electron pairs
electron domains
in the VSEPR model, a region about a central atom in which an electron pair is concentrated
bonding pairs
in a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by two atoms
nonbonding pairs
in a Lewis structure a pair of electrons assigned completely to one atom; also called lone pair
electron-domain geometry
the 3D arrangement of the electron domains around an atom according to the VSEPR
molecular geometry
the arrangement in space of the atoms of a molecule
bond dipoles
the dipole moment that is due to unequal electron sharing between two atoms in a covalent bond
valence-bond theory
a model of chemical bonding in which an electron-pair bond is formed between two atoms by the overlap of orbitals on the two atoms
hybrid orbitals
an orbitals that results from the mizing of different kinds of atomic orbitals on the same atoms; for example, an sp3 hybrid results from the mixing, or hybridizing, of one s orbital and three p orbitals
hybridization
the mixing of different types of atomic orbitals to produce a set of equivalent hybrid orbitals
sigma bonds
a covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated along the internuclear axis
pi bonds
a covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated above and below the internuclear axis
delocalized electrons
electrons that are spread over a number of atoms in a molecule or a crystal rather than localized on a single atom or pair of atoms
molecular orbital theory
a theory that accounts for the allowed states for electrons in moleucles
molecular orbitals (MOs)
an allowed state for an electron in a molecule; according to molecular orbital theory, an MO is entirely analogous to an atomic orbital, which is an allowed state for an electron in an atom; most boding molecular orbitals can be classified of sigma or pi, depending on the disposition of electron density with respect to the internuclear axis
bonding molecular orbital
a molecular orbital in which the electron density is concentrated in the internuclear region; the energy of a bonding molecular orbital is lower than the energy of the separate atomic orbitals from which it forms
antibonding molecular orbital
a molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms; such orbitals are less stable than bonding molecular orbitals
sigma molecular orbitals
a molecular orbital that centers the electron density about an imaginary line passing through two nuclei
energy-level diagram
a diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derive
molecular orbital diagram
a diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived
bond order
the number of bonding electron pairs shared between two atoms, minus the number of antibonding electron pairs: bond order = (number or bonding electrons-number of antibonding electrons)/2
pi molecular orbitals
a molecular orbital that concentrates the electron density on opposite sides of an imaginary line that passes through the nuclei
paramagnetism
a property that a substance possesses if it contains one or more unpaired electrons; a paramagnetic substance is drawn into a magnetic field
diamagnetism
a type of magnetism that causes a substance with no unpaired electrons to be weakly repelled from a magnetic field
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