Mr. Pfriem’s Chemistry Vocab

Electrons
Subatomic waves that have negative electrical charges
Protons
Subatomic particle that has a positive electrical charge
Neutrons
Subatomic particle that has no charge
Nucleus
Central location of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Matter
Anything that has mass and volume
Inference
Assumption/conclusion derived from an observation
Heterogeneous Mixture
Physical blend in which substances are not distributed evenly
Homogeneous Mixture
Physical blend in which substances are distributed evenly
Control Group
Part of the experiment that doesn’t contain the cause.
Condensation Point
Temperature at which gas becomes a liquid
Melting Point
Temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.
Metric System
Group of measurements all based on the number 10
Boyle’s Law
At constant temperature, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Explanation of how gas particles behave.
Element
Pure substances made up of only 1 type of atom.
Atom
An uncharged particle that weights the R.O.A.M.
Isotope
Particles that don’t weigh the R.O.A.M.
Heavy Isotope
Particles weighing more than the R.O.A.M.
Light Isotope
Particles weighing less than the R.O.A.M.
Atomic Number
Amount of protons in the nucleus of that element.
Atomic Symbol
Abbreviation of an element
Charge Number
Electrical intensity of a particle
Periodic Table
Chart listing all known elements
LCM (Law of Conservation of Matter)
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed under normal circumstances.
Electron Cloud
General space where electrons travel
Coefficcient
Total number of particles
Molar Mass
Weight of 6.02 x 10^23 particles
Mass Number
Specific weight of an individual particle
Metalloid
Element that has properties of both metals and non-metals
Metal
Element on left side of PT
Ion
Electrically charged particle
Non-metal
Elements on right side of PT
Oxidation number
Electrical charge that an atom would like to have in order to become stable
Valence Configuration
Mathematical description of the outermost electrons in a particle
Stability
Tendency not to react
Compound
Pure substances made up of only one type of molecule
Observation
Information gained directly from one or more of the five senses.
Physical reaction
Change in which NO new substances form
Gram
Standard unit of mass in metric system
Science
Study of the unknown
Mole
6.02 X 10^23
Experimental group
Part of experiment that contains the cause
Experiment
Test of hypothesis
Chemical reaction
Change in which one or more new substances form
Data
Objective info gathered from experiment
Hypothesis
Proposed solution to a scientific problem
Chemistry
Study of structures, properties and compositions of matter, and changes in that matter.
Anion
Negatively charged particle
Cation
Positively charged particle
Density
Physical property describing thickness of a substance
Subscript
Number of atoms in a molecule
Molecule
Smallest unit of compound and still have all the properties of that compound
Mixture
Blend of two or more substances physically combined in a variable ratio
Catalyst
Anything that makes a chemical reaction go faster without being used up.
Water displacement
Method for finding volume of an irregular shaped object
Mass
Amount of matter in an object
Volume
Amount of space an object takes up
Length
Distance from one point to another
Liter
Standard unit of volume in metric system
Meter
Standard unit of length in the metric system
Energy level
Amount of energy an electron has which is based on its distance from the nucleus
Theory
Explanation of an unknown phenomenon based on all the knowledge known to man
Sublevel
Group of similar oribitals within the same energy level
Pressure
Force applied per unit area from molecular collisions
Scientific Method
Series of steps to solve the unknown
Transition Metals
B column elements, D block elements
Atomic Mass
Average weight of all isotopes of an element
Representative elements
A column elements, s + p block elements
Model
Physical representation designed to make a difficult concept easier to understand
Freezing point
Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid
Heat
Total kinetic energy of a system
Boiling point
Temperature in which liquid becomes a gas
Temperature
Average kinetic energy of a system
Endothermic reaction
Change in which heat is absorbed.
Exothermic Reaction
Change in which heat is released
Guy-Lussac’s Law
At constant volume the pressure of a gas is directly proportional tot he temperature of that gas
Charles Law
At constant pressure the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of that gas.
Crystal Lattice (crystal)
Solid that repeats its structure over and over. (regular repeating structure)
Hydrate
Ionic compound with a fixed number of water molecules in its structure
Anhydrous compounds
Do not take in any water
Ionic Compound
Group of two or more ions bonded ionically
Molecules
Group of two or more atoms bonded covalently
Nomenclature
study of naming things
Monoatomic Ion
Charged particle that came from one atom i.e. K2
Polyatomic Ion
Charged particle that came from more than one atom i.e. NaCl
Ionic bonds
Attraction between Ions caused by opposite electrical charges. (nothing shared)
Covalent bonds
Attraction between atoms caused by sharing of valence electrons
Electronegativity
Tendency of a particle to pull valence electrons from another particle
Electronegativity Difference
Difference between ability to take electrons
Diatomic Molecules
Covalent compound made up of two of the same types of atoms
Polar Covalent Bond
Attraction between two atoms in which valence electrons are UNEVENLY shared
Non-Polar Covalent Bond
Attraction between two atoms in which valence electrons are EVENLY shared.
Hydrophobic Molecule
Covalent compound that will not dissolve in water. Made by non-polar covalent bonds.
Hydrophilic
Covalent compound that will dissolve in water. Made by polar covalent bond.
Empirical
Formula in simplest state
Single/double/triple covalent bonds
attraction between 2 atoms in which 1/2/3 pairs of valence electrons are shared.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Free electron pairs take up more space than bonded electron pairs
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