Ms Redican’s chem cards

What is the Quantum leap or atomic spectra process?
electrons absorb energy and jump up to the excited state — the release energy as light (colors) and jump down to a lower level
What kind of elements are involved in IONIC bonding?
metals with nonmetals
What happens to electrons in IONIC bonds?
electrons are transferred
What are properties of IONIC materials?
good conductors when dissolved in water, high melting point
What are ANIONS and how are they made?
Anions are negative ions and they are made when nonmetals gain electrons Anions are bigger than neutral atoms b/c they gain e-
What are CATIONS and how are they made?
Cations are positive ions and they are made when metals lose electrons Cations are smaller than neutral atoms b/c they lose e-
What kind of elements are involved in COVALENT bonding?
What happens to electrons in Covalent bonds?
electrons are shared
What are the two kinds of Covalent bonding and how are they different?
Covalent Polar bonds share e- unevenly, Covalent NonPolar Bonds share e- evenly. Polar substance have partial charges and can dissolve in water. Nonpolar substances have no change and cannot dissolve in water.
Examples of Covalent Polar substances
Water , Ammonia, Acids
Examples of Covalent NonPolar Substances
Carbon dioxide, hexane, oil
What are properties of Covalent substances?
poor conductors, low melting points
What is Metallic Bonding?
when a metal (metals) lose e- into a sea of e-. These free moving e- allow metals to be good conductors of electricity.
What type of matter are Elements?
PURE matter.
What are elements made of ? Can they be decomposed?
only one type of atom . and they cannot be decomposed
What type of matter are Compounds/Molecules?
PURE matter
How are compounds/molecules made?
two or more different atoms bond together
Can compounds be decomposed?
yes, they can chemically decomposed
What are the two types of mixtures?
heterogeneous and homogeneous
How are mixtures different?
heterogeneous is visibly different, but homogeneous looks the same throughout
What type of bond is involved in compounds with Polyatomic Ions?
BOTH ionic and covalent
How can you tell if it’s an acid?
Usually starts with H
How can you tell if it’s a base?
Usually ends in OH
What is the formula for ammonia?
What is the formula for water?
What type of matter are sollutions?
Homogeneous solutions
What is a solute?
the substance that gets dissolved
What is a solvent?
the substance that does the dissolving
What are the 4 colligative properties?
freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, vapor pressure reduction, osmotic pressure
What are colligative properties related to?
the amount of solute — the higher the concentration
How can you see the difference between unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated on the graph?
unsaturated is “under” the curve, saturated is “on” the curve, supersaturated is “above” the curve
When do you use distillation?
to separate 2 or more liquids that have different boiling points
How can crude oil be separated?
What is chromatography?
separating inks or dyes
When should you filter something?
to separate a solid from a liquid
How can density separate things?
heavy/moredense things sink and the lighter/lessdense things float
What 3 things affect the RATE of solubility?
stirring, crushing/surface area, temperature
What 3 thing affect how much dissolves?
type of substance, pressure (if it’s a gas), temperature
How does increased temperature effect the solubility of gases?
it decreases, the curve goes down
How does increased temperature effect the solubility of solids/liquids?
it increases, the curve goes up -ex. hot tea dissolve more sugar than iced tea
What are the 3 states/phases of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
What phase has the most entropy?
What is entropy?
Which state of matter is “fixed, vibrating in position”?
Which state of matter is “constant random straightline motion”?
Which state of matter has the MOST kinetic energy?
What is the difference between INTRAmolecular forces and INTERmolecular forces?
INTRA means forces inside the molecules, and INTER means forces between the molecules
What are INTRAmolecular forces?
What are INTERmolecular forces?
forces that make something a solid, liquid, or gas
What state of matter has the STRONGEST INTER molecular forces?
solids (feel the table or desk — it is very strong – it has strong forces)
How do you name IONIC compounds?
Use (roman numerals) and it ends in “IDE”
How do you name COVALENT molecules?
Use PREfixes like 1-mono, 2-di, 3-tri, 4-tetra, 5-pent, 6-hex…
How do you name ACIDS?
if it starts with H , look it up on Table K
How do you name BASES?
if it ends in OH, look it up on Table L
How do you name compounds with POLYATOMICS?
Use table E polyatomic ion chart
How do you do FORMULAS?
CRISS CROSS method, OR BALANCE the charges method
How are metals and nonmetals different?
metals are good conductors and are usually silver/grey and malleable, but nonmetals are poor conductors and are brittle
What are valence electrons?
outer shell electrons
When are elements SIMILAR?
If they are in the same group/ same valence electrons
What is the atomic number?
number of PROTONS
What is the number of neutrons?
MASS – Protons
What is an isotope?
same element, same atomic number, different mass, different neutrons
What is the atomic mass (average)?
Average of an isotope’s masses
What is an ORBITAL?
a high probability area outside the nucleus where electrons are located
Where are electrons located?
What are nucleons?
protons and neutrons
What are the numbers of protons and electrons in a neutral atom?
protons and electrons are the same number in a neutral atom
When an atom loses electrons, what happens to the mass?
nothing – electrons weigh almost 0 amu
What is the mass of a proton or neutron?
1 amu
When solute is added to a solvent, what happens to the boiling point and the freezing point?
the boiling point increases and the freezing point decreases
What is Ionization Energy?
the amount of energy it takes to remove an electron
How does Ionization energy change as you go across a period? Why?
IE increases as you go across the table because atoms get smaller and hold onto their electrons more tightly. so it takes more energy to remove them
How does Ionization energy change as you go down a group? Why?
IE decreases as you go down the table because atoms get larger and hold onto electrons more loosely, so it takes less energy to remove them
How does Atomic Radius change as you go across a period?
Radius gets smaller as you go across because the nucleus pulls the electrons into more closely and more tightly
How does Atomic Radius change as you go down a period?
Radius gets larger as you go down a group because there are more shells and the electrons are held more loosely
How do you draw an atom?
Draw the nucleus and write the protons and neutrons inside. Then draw the shells/rings and use the electron configuration from the periodic table to put the electrons in the shells.
How do you draw a LEWIS diagram?
Write the symbol and put the dots to represent the VALENCE (outer) electrons only
What is electron affinity?
The ability to attract electrons
What are NOBLE gases?
group 18 gases – they are full and happy – they do not react usually
Group 17 fluorine, chlorine, etc
What 2 things did Rutherford learn from his GOLD FOIL experiment?
atoms are mostly empty space and atoms have a tiny, dense nucleus
Which particle is negative?
Which particles have the same mass?
protons and neutrons
Which particle is positive?
Which particle is neutral?
Which side of the Periodic Table are metals usually found?
What is a chemical change?
bonds are broken and new bonds formed; atoms are rearranged and something NEW is produced (e.g. burning paper, acid base reaction)
What is a physical change?
Nothing new is made – atoms may move farther apart and the substance may look different , but the molecules are the same (e.g. boiling, melting, freezing, dissolving, etc)
What are reactants?
starting materials; found on the left of the arrow
What are products?
ending materials; found on the right of the arrow
What is exothermic ?
Releases heat; heat is a product; temperature goes up; H = –
What is endothermic?
heat is absorbed, heat is a reactant; temperature goes down; H= +
How do you calculate q?
Table T – formulas for q
How do you tell if something is exo or endo?
look on table I
What type of rxn is : A +B + C –> ABC
What type of rxn is: DE –> D + E
What type of rxn is : A + BC — > B + AC
single replacement
What type of rxn is : AB + CD –> AD + CB
double repacement
What type of rxn is : CxHy + O2 –> H2O + CO2
What type of rxn is : HX + YOH —> H2O + YX
Acid -Base Neutralization
How can you tell if it is an acid?
Starts with H (except H2O, water not an acid); pH less than 7; H+ donor; use an indicator reference tables
How can you tell if it is a base?
metal with an OH; makes OH-; accepts H+; pH greater than 7; use reference tables
What is an electrolyte?
conducts electricity in water; an acid, base or ionic salt solution
What is an ionic salt solution?
a metal with a nonmetal dissolved in water (e.g salt water)
What is molar mass or gram formula mass?
Use your periodic table to add up the weights of the elements
What are solids?
rigid, crystaline structures; fixed volume and shape; low entropy; low kinetic energy; strong intermolecular forces
What are liquids?
particles flow and move — has surface tension and viscosity
What are gases?
move in random, constant, straight-line motion; fills entire container; high kinetic energy, high entropy; weak intermolecular forces
What is entropy?
What is kinetic energy?
energy of motion – related to temperature
What are gas laws?
see table T P1V1/T1 =P2V2/T2
What is pressure volume relationship?
downward curve – inverse relationship
What is temeprature and KE relationship?
straight-line going up
What is volume and temp relationship?
straight-line going up
What is a buffer?
maintains a constant pH
What is titration?
a test to calculate the concentration of an acid or base – see table T
What is organic chemistry?
molecules with H and C
How many times does C bond?
What is saturated?
single bonds – alkanes
What are unsaturated bonds?
double or triple bonds (alkenes/alkynes)
What has a triple bond?
What is CO2?
covalent nonpolar
What is substitution rxn?
single to single organic bonds with 1 switch
What is addition rxn?
double to single – to things add on
What is esterfication?
it makes an ester see table R
What is polymerization?
making plastics, etc n(C-C) –> (-C-C_)n
What is saponification?
making soap
What is oxidation?
e- are a product; ox is loss of e-; at the anode
What is reduction?
e- are a reactant; red is gain of e-; at the cathode
What is voltaic cell?
spontaneous; no battery ; needs salt bridge
What is an electrolytic cell?
non spontaneous; battery required; used for plating or coating objects like keys, spoons, jewelry; anode connects to + battery side and cathode connects to – battery side b/c opposites attract
How to calculate oxidation number?
use periodic table and make eqn with x in it
What is the anode?
where oxidation happens – it can be attached to the + side of a battery
What is the cathode?
it is where reduction happens – it can be attached to the – side of a battery
Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain; Anode is ox. Red. at the Cathode
Natural transmutation
1 element decaying transforming into another
Artificial transmutation
An element and a particle become a new element
an element and a particle become two smaller elements
two light elements (H, He) fuse together and combine
concentration of the reactants equals the concentration of the products; the rates are equal
Le Chatelier’s Principle
when a system at equilibrium changes – it favors or shifts to return to equilibrium
the time it takes for a sample to decay in half
I- 131, C-14, U-238, U-235
I-131 (thyroid), C-14 (dating fosslls, dead things) , U-238 (dating rocks), U-235 (nuclear power)

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