Ms Redican’s chem cards January

What is the Quantum leap or atomic spectra process?
electrons absorb energy and jump up to the excited state — the release energy as light (colors) and jump down to a lower level
What kind of elements are involved in IONIC bonding?
metals with nonmetals
What happens to electrons in IONIC bonds?
electrons are transferred
What are properties of IONIC materials?
good conductors when dissolved in water, high melting point
What are ANIONS and how are they made?
Anions are negative ions and they are made when nonmetals gain electrons Anions are bigger than neutral atoms b/c they gain e-
What are CATIONS and how are they made?
Cations are positive ions and they are made when metals lose electrons Cations are smaller than neutral atoms b/c they lose e-
What kind of elements are involved in COVALENT bonding?
nonmetals
What happens to electrons in Covalent bonds?
electrons are shared
What are the two kinds of Covalent bonding and how are they different?
Covalent Polar bonds share e- unevenly, Covalent NonPolar Bonds share e- evenly. Polar substance have partial charges and can dissolve in water. Nonpolar substances have no change and cannot dissolve in water.
Examples of Covalent Polar substances
Water , Ammonia, Acids
Examples of Covalent NonPolar Substances
Carbon dioxide, hexane, oil
What are properties of Covalent substances?
poor conductors, low melting points
What is Metallic Bonding?
when a metal (metals) lose e- into a sea of e-. These free moving e- allow metals to be good conductors of electricity.
What type of matter are Elements?
PURE matter.
What are elements made of ? Can they be decomposed?
only one type of atom . and they cannot be decomposed
What type of matter are Compounds/Molecules?
PURE matter
How are compounds/molecules made?
two or more different atoms bond together
Can compounds be decomposed?
yes, they can chemically decomposed
What are the two types of mixtures?
heterogeneous and homogeneous
How are mixtures different?
heterogeneous is visibly different, but homogeneous looks the same throughout
What type of bond is involved in compounds with Polyatomic Ions?
BOTH ionic and covalent
How can you tell if it’s an acid?
Usually starts with H
How can you tell if it’s a base?
Usually ends in OH
What is the formula for ammonia?
NH3
What is the formula for water?
H2O
What type of matter are sollutions?
Homogeneous solutions
What is a solute?
the substance that gets dissolved
What is a solvent?
the substance that does the dissolving
How can you see the difference between unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated on the graph?
unsaturated is “under” the curve, saturated is “on” the curve, supersaturated is “above” the curve
When do you use distillation?
to separate 2 or more liquids that have different boiling points
How can crude oil be separated?
distillation
What is chromatography?
separating inks or dyes
When should you filter something?
to separate a solid from a liquid
How can density separate things?
heavy/moredense things sink and the lighter/lessdense things float
What 3 things affect the RATE of solubility?
stirring, crushing/surface area, temperature
What 3 thing affect how much dissolves?
type of substance, pressure (if it’s a gas), temperature
How does increased temperature effect the solubility of gases?
it decreases, the curve goes down
How does increased temperature effect the solubility of solids/liquids?
it increases, the curve goes up -ex. hot tea dissolve more sugar than iced tea
What are the 3 states/phases of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
How do you name IONIC compounds?
Use (roman numerals) and it ends in “IDE”
How do you name COVALENT molecules?
Use PREfixes like 1-mono, 2-di, 3-tri, 4-tetra, 5-pent, 6-hex…
How do you name ACIDS?
if it starts with H , look it up on Table K
How do you name BASES?
if it ends in OH, look it up on Table L
How do you name compounds with POLYATOMICS?
Use table E polyatomic ion chart
How do you do FORMULAS?
CRISS CROSS method, OR BALANCE the charges method
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