Nervous System

neuron
nerve cell that conducts impulses
sensory neuron (afferent neuron)
carries impulses to the central nervous system
interneuron
carries impulses within the central nervous system
motor neuron (efferent neuron)
carries impulses from the central nervous system to effectors
dendrite
projection of cytoplasm that carries impulses toward the cell body
axon
extension of cytoplasm that carries nerve impulses away from cell body
myelin sheath
covering over the axon of a nerve cell that is composed of Schwann cells and insulates the axon
nodes of Ranvier
regularly occurring gaps between sections of myelin sheath that speed transmission of nerve impulses
neurilemma
delicate membrane surrounding the axons o some nerve cells that promotes nerve regeneration
reflex arc
neural circuit that travels through the spinal cord, provides a framework for a reflex action
glial cells
nonconducting cells important for the structural support and metabolism of the nerve cells
ganglia
clusters in which cell bodies of sensory neurons are located outside the spinal cord
meninges
protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
circulates between the innermost and middle membranes of the brain and spinal cord, acts as a transport medium and shock absorber
cerebrum
the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain, stores sensory information and initiates voluntary motor activities
cerebral cortex
the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
a nerve tract that allows communication between the two cerebral hemispheres
cerebellum
the region of the brain that coordinates muscle movement
hypothalamus
maintains the body’s internal equilibrium
pons
the region of the brain that acts as a relay station by sending nerve messages between the cerebellum and the medulla
medulla oblongata
the hindbrain region that joins the spinal cord to the cerebellum, the site of autonomic nerve control
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