# NEU GenChem 9/21-9/24 Toher

 Define significant figures (aka sig figs)
 Sig figs are used to determine which numbers in a measurement or calculation using measurement “count” or need to be reported for accuracy.
 How many rules for sig figs are there and what are they?
 There are 5 rules regarding sig figs. They are: 1: All non-zero digits are sig. 2: Zeros between non-zeros are significant. 3: Zeros which preceed non-zero digits are not significant. 4: Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal place anywhere in the number are significant. 5: Zeros at the end of of a number not specifically mentioned in scientific notation are not significant.
 Are there any exceptions to the rules of sig figs and if so, what are they?
 There is one exception which applies to rule #5. The base of the exception states that if there is a decimal place (such as 10.0) then both zeros are significant since the 0 typically would denote a rounded number.
 What are the rules for addition/subtraction of significant figures?
 Sum/difference is reported to the number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In the case of 15.8 – 14.73 3 sig figs would be used.
 What is the rule for reporting sig figs in regards to multiplication/division?
 Like the addition/subtraction rule you simply take the least number of decimal places reported. Again, with a number of 3 sig figs and another of 4 the reported answer would have 3 sig figs.
 Define accuracy
 Accuracy is defined as how close to the actual value a measurement is.
 Define precision
 Precision is defined as how close together a set of measurements is.
 Define an atomic bond
 An atomic bond is defined as the “glue” which is the attraction force which holds atoms together.
 Define a covalent bond
 A covalent bond is defined as a bond in which electrons are shared between atoms (always a non-metal to another non-metal).
 Define an ionic bond
 An ionic bond is defined as oppositely charged particles Coulombically attracted which is always between a metal and a non-metal (that is, always between a cation and an anion).
 What are columns of the periodic table called?
 They’re called groups or families.
 What do metals tend to form?
 Metals tend to form cations by electron loss (oxidation).
 What to non-metals typically form?
 Non-metals tend to form anions by electron gain (reduction).
 In nomenclature, what does the prefix “per” denote?
 It means that the highest amount of oxygen possible is present.
 What does the prefix “hypo-” denote?
 It indicates that the lowest amount of oxygen possible is present.
 What is so special about CrAsPS?
 There is no per-ates and not hypo-ites. For example, PO4-3 becomes simply phosphate and PO3-3 becomes phosphite.
 If a compound ends in “-ide”, what will its acidic name become?
 It will become hydro-ic acid (ex: hydrochloric acid).
 Hydrogen
 H+
 Lithium
 Li+
 Sodium
 Na+
 Potassium
 K+
 Ammonium
 NH4+
 Silver
 Ag+
 Copper(I)
 Cu+
 Mercury(I)
 Hg2+2
 Magnesium
 Mg+2
 Calcium
 Ca+2
 Strontium
 Sr+2
 Barium
 Ba+2
 Zinc
 Zn+2
 Cd+2
 Copper(II)
 Cu+2
 Mercury(II)
 Hg+2
 Chromium(II)
 Cr+2
 Manganese(II)
 Mn+2
 Iron(II)
 Fe+2
 Cobalt(II)
 Co+2
 Nickel(II)
 Ni+2
 Tin(II)
 Sn+2
 Pb+2
 Aluminum
 Al+3
 Chromium
 Cr+3
 Manganese
 Mn+3
 Iron(III)
 Fe+3
 Cobalt(III)
 Co+3
 Nickel(III)
 Ni+3
 Tin(IV)
 Sn+4
 Pb+4
 Peroxide
 O2-2
 Hydride
 H-
 Fluoride
 F-
 Chloride
 Cl-
 Bromide
 Br-
 Iodide
 I-
 Hydroxide
 OH-
 Hydrogen carbonate
 HCO3–
 Hydrogen sulfate
 HSO4–
 Hydrogen sulfite
 HSO3–
 Thiocyanate
 SCN-
 Cyanide
 CN-
 Acetate
 CH3COO- or C2H3O2–
 Nitrate
 NO3–
 Nitrite
 NO2–
 Permanganate
 MnO4–
 Perchlorate
 ClO4–
 Chlorate
 ClO3–
 Chlorite
 ClO2–
 Hypochlorite
 ClO-
 Oxide
 O-2
 Sulfide
 S-2
 Selenide
 Se-2
 Telluride
 Te-2
 Carbonate
 CO3-2
 Sulfate
 SO4-2
 Thiosulfate
 S2O3-2
 Oxalate
 C2O4-2
 Chromate
 CrO4-2
 Dichromate
 Cr2O7-2
 Nitride
 N-3
 Phosphide
 P-3
 Arsenide
 As-3
 Carbide
 C-4
 Phosphate
 PO4-3
 Phosphite
 PO3-3
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