Define significant figures (aka sig figs) 

Sig figs are used to determine which numbers in a measurement or calculation using measurement “count” or need to be reported for accuracy.


How many rules for sig figs are there and what are they? 

There are 5 rules regarding sig figs. They are: 1: All nonzero digits are sig. 2: Zeros between nonzeros are significant. 3: Zeros which preceed nonzero digits are not significant. 4: Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal place anywhere in the number are significant. 5: Zeros at the end of of a number not specifically mentioned in scientific notation are not significant.


Are there any exceptions to the rules of sig figs and if so, what are they? 

There is one exception which applies to rule #5. The base of the exception states that if there is a decimal place (such as 10.0) then both zeros are significant since the 0 typically would denote a rounded number.


What are the rules for addition/subtraction of significant figures? 

Sum/difference is reported to the number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. In the case of 15.8 – 14.73 3 sig figs would be used. 

What is the rule for reporting sig figs in regards to multiplication/division? 

Like the addition/subtraction rule you simply take the least number of decimal places reported. Again, with a number of 3 sig figs and another of 4 the reported answer would have 3 sig figs.



Accuracy is defined as how close to the actual value a measurement is.



Precision is defined as how close together a set of measurements is.



An atomic bond is defined as the “glue” which is the attraction force which holds atoms together.



A covalent bond is defined as a bond in which electrons are shared between atoms (always a nonmetal to another nonmetal).



An ionic bond is defined as oppositely charged particles Coulombically attracted which is always between a metal and a nonmetal (that is, always between a cation and an anion). 

What are columns of the periodic table called? 

They’re called groups or families.


What do metals tend to form? 

Metals tend to form cations by electron loss (oxidation). 

What to nonmetals typically form? 

Nonmetals tend to form anions by electron gain (reduction). 

In nomenclature, what does the prefix “per” denote? 

It means that the highest amount of oxygen possible is present. 

What does the prefix “hypo” denote? 

It indicates that the lowest amount of oxygen possible is present. 

What is so special about CrAsPS? 

There is no perates and not hypoites. For example, PO_{4}^{3} becomes simply phosphate and PO_{3}^{3} becomes phosphite.


If a compound ends in “ide”, what will its acidic name become? 

It will become hydroic acid (ex: hydrochloric acid). 
























































































CH_{3}COO or C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}– 














































