Nitrogenous and Iron Compounds/Renal System

NPN
Non Protein Nitrogen
Pre-renal
Process that occurs before reaching the kidneys
Renal
Processes that occur in the kidney
Post-renal
Process that occurs after the kidneys
Renal Clearance
The volume of plasma from which the kidneys can remove all of a given substance in a certain time period, usually one minute.
Urea
Primary nitrogenous compound which builds up in the blood
Urea
Waste product of protein metabolism normally removed from the blood in the kidneys
Liver
The sole site of urea formation
Creatinine
A nitrogenous compound whose production is fairly stable; therefore more indicative of kidney failure
Ammonia
Formed in increased amounts as protein breaks down
Uric Acid
Primary waste product or purine metabolism
Gout, Increased catabolism, Renal disease
Three major disease states associated with elevated plasma uric acid
Ammonia
While treated as a Non Protein Nitrogen, is primarily excreted by the liver and NOT the kidneys
Liver disease
The most common cause of abnormal ammonia metabolism
Urea
Provides an indication of renal performance
Azotemia
A significant increase in the plasma concentrations of urea, in kidney insufficiency
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Measures the amount of the nitrogen found in blood area. This nitrogen is attributed to urea, which is constantly being produced from the catabolism of amino acids / oldest method
Coupled Enzymatic Analysis
Methodology for measuring ammonia
Jaffe
Methodology for measuring creatinine
Caraway
Methodology for measuring Uric Acid
Clearance
The volume of plasma from which the kidney can remove all of a given substance in a certain period of time, usually one minute
Functions of Iron
Binds reversably with oxygen
Aids in electron transport
Hemoglobin
Oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells.
Largest concentration of iron in the body.
Myoglobin
Oxygen binding protein of striated and cardiac muscles.
Tissue Iron
approx 8 mg
certain cellulat enzymes and coenzymes
peroxidases and cytochromes
all nucleated cells in the body
Labile pool
iron in transition from one point to another
80 mg
Transport of iron
accomplished by protein, apotransferrin
Storage of Iron
Males 800 mg
Females 0-200 mg
Daily requirements of iron
10-15 mg/day, mostly from meat
varied depending on age, fender, psysiological status
Iron storage compartments
Liver, Bone Marrow, Spleen and other tissues
Ferritin
major iron storage compound
Hemosiderin
Found in cells of the liver, spleen, bone marroe
Absorption
How the iron balance is regulated
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