(Not) Crystal Clear Kovach

Electromagnetic Radiation
(order)
Radio Waves
Microwave
Infared heat
Visible Light
Ultra Violet
X-ray
Gamma ray
Speed of light
2.998*10^8 m/s
Wavelength
The physical distance between peaks
m
lambda
Frequency
wavelength/cycle/sec
Hz = 1/s = s^-1
quanta
the smallest amt of energy that can be emitted/absorbed in electromagnetic radation
(packets of energy that can be either absorbed or released)
a unit
Planck’s equation
E=hV
h= 6.626*10^-34
Threshhold Frequency
the minimum frequency that causes the electrons to eject (diferent for each metal)

less intensity-> less electrons
more intensity -> more packets -> more electrons come off

Broglie’s equation
lambda= h/mv
(mass*velocity)
Heisenberg’s Uncertaintity Principle
you can’t determine where an electron is. The very act of observing changes the observed.
Pauli’s Exclusion Princliple
elecrons can never be doing the same thing as another in the same atom; each atom has its own unique address
Hund’s Rule
electrons do not ‘pair up’ until all equivalent orbitals have 1e- (more stable)
Isoelectronic
same electron configuration as another
Screening Effect
attraction to nucleus is smaller when there are more electrons (than when there is just one)
Effective Nuclear Charge
the positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom

the stregth of the the effect the nucleus has on a (far out) electron

Atomic Size
length of nucleus to outer most (radius)
Trend:
atomic size gets bigger as you go down groups
atomic size decreses (slightly) as you move right on the period
Ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from the atom
ALWAYS POSITIVE
Trend:
increases as you move right on the period
decreases when you move down in a group
Anomolies:
between…
Be/B
N/O
Mg/Al
P/S
Electron Affinity
the energy change when an atom gains an electron to from an anion

the greater the negative, the more the atom wants it

Trend: becomes more neg (relases more energy/heat as you move right on the period
No real trend moving down groups
Anomalies:
Be>0 (already has a filled sublevel, doesn’t really want it)
same for N, Mg

Relative Sizes of Atoms to their Ions
Atoms always become smaller when they become cadions (metals, looses electrons)
atoms always become bigger when they become anions (nonmetals, gains electrons)
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