Notes on Chapter 3

Democritus called nature’s basic particle an?
The atom.
What is Chemical reaction?
is the transformation of a substances into one or more new substances.
The Greek word meaning “indivisible” is?
The atom.
Which person had his ideas impact the western civilization, and he did not believe in atoms. He thought all matter was continuous.
Aristotle.
Matter is separated into what two things?
Mixtures and Pure substances.
Mixtures is broken into what two parts?
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous mixtures.
Pure Substances is broken down to what two things?
Compounds and Elements
What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
Which states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.
What is the Law of Definite Proportions?
The fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.
What is the Law of Multiple Proportions?
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
What were the five statements of John Dalton’s theory?
1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
The Atomic Theory has not been discarded, however, it was modified to what two things?
(1) all matter is composed of atoms and that(2) atoms of any one element differ in properties from atoms of another element remain unchanged.
What is an atom?
is the particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
All atoms consist of how many regions?
Two.
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are often referred as?
Subatomic particles.
Protons, electrons, and neutrons have what type of charge?
Protons-positive
Electrons-negative
Neutrons-neutral
In the late 1800s many experiments were performed in which electric current was passed through various gases at low pressures. These experiments were carried out in glass tubes, also known as what?
Cathode-ray tubes.
What is Avogadro Number?
6.022*10^23
x

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