Nuclear Chemistry

Although typically the nucleus is less than one ten-thousandth the size of the atom, it contains what percentage of the mass of the atom?
99.9
What force holds the nucleus together?
Strong (or nuclear)
The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay.
Half-life
Nucleons.
Protons and neutrons
An atom.
Nuclide
The difference betweeen the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Mass Defect
The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.
Nuclear Binding Energy
The most stable nuclei have this ration of neutrons to protons.
1:1
Has it been found that the most stable nuclide have an even or odd number of nucleons?
Even
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom.
Nuclear Reaction
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons.
Transmutation
What did Becquerel do on March 1, 1896 and why was it important?
He wrapped a photographic plate with a lightproof covering and placed a uranium compound on top of it. Evne though he did not place it in sunlight, the plate was still exposed. This led to the discovery of radioactivity.
The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
Radioactive Decay
All of the nuclides beyond what atomic number on the periodic table are unstable and radioactive.
83
The charge of an alpha particle
+2
Two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Alpha Particle
An electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Beta Particle
A particle that has the same mass as an electron, but has a positive charge, and is emitted during some kinds of radioactive decay.
Positron
High-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state.
Gamma Rays
Occurs when an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its won atom.
Electron Capture
What is the half-life of Carbon-14?
5715 years
What is the half-life of Uranium-238?
4.46E9 years
A series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached.
Decay Series
The heaviest nuclide of a decay series.
Parent Nuclide
The nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclides.
Daughter Nuclides
Elements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei.
Transuranium Elements.
Why is Carbon-14 important?
It can be used to estimate the age of organic material up to about 50000 years old.
The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present.
Radioactive Dating
Process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass.
Fission
A reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction.
Chain Reaction
How many neutrons are given off when uranum-235 fission occurs?
2 or 3
These use heat from nuclear reactors to produce electrical energy.
Nuclear Power Plants
The minimum amound of nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction.
Critical Mass
These use controlled-fission chain reactions to produce energy or radioactive nuclides.
Nuclear Reactors
Light-mass nuclei combine to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.
Nuclear Fusion
Explain how to draw a nuclear symbol.
Mass number over atomic number in front of the symbol
Write the equation that shows the equivalency of mass and energy.
E=mc2
Where and when did the worse nuclear accident in the United States occur?
Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania on March 28, 1979.
Where and when did the worse nuclear accident in the world occur?
April 26, 1986 in the former Soviet Union
Ultimately, what was the main cause of the biggest three nuclear accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokiamura, Japan) in world history?
Human Error
What would be the products of the alpha decay of Uranium-233?
Helium-4 and Thorium-229
What would be the products of the beta decay of Magnesium-24?
Aluminum-24 and a beta particle
What would be the products of the positron decay of Potassium-38?
Argon -38 and a positron
What would be the product if Gallium-67 decays by electron capture?
Zinc-67
The stable nuclei cluster over a range of neutron-proton ratios.
Band of Stability
The numbers of nucleons that represent completed nuclear energy levels-2,8,20,28,50,82 and 126.
Magic Numbers
The difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Mass Defect
The energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.
Nuclear Binding Energy
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom.
Nuclear Reaction
Nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus.
Nuclear Shell Model
A proton or neutron.
Nucleon
The process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present.
Radioactive Dating
The general term for any isotope of any element; another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
Nuclide
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons.
Transmutation
Bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles.
Artificial Transmutation
The particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay.
Nuclear Radiation
The spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by an emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
Radioactive Decay
Unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay.
Radioactive Nuclide
An element with more than 92 protons in its nucleus.
Transuranium Element
A device that uses exposure of film to measure the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiation.
Film Badge
An instrument that detects radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation.
Geiger-Muller Counter
A radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiation detector.
Radioactive Tracer
The quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as is done by 1 roentgen of high voltage X rays.
rem
A unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2E9 ion pairs when it passes through a cubic centimeter of dry air.
Roentgen
An instrument that converts scintillating light to an electric signal for detecting radiation.
Scintillation Counter
Neutron-absorbing rods that help control a nuclear reaction by controlling the number of free electrons.
Control Rods
A material used to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission.[image][image]
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