Nutrition 2011 Final

Classes of Nutrients
Carbs: Sugars and starch
Lipids: Fats/Triglycerides
Proteins: AA’s
Energy provided per nutrient per gram
Carbs: 4 kcal/g
Lipids: 9 kcal/g
Proteins: 4 kcal/g
Simple Sugars
Glucose, galactose, fructose
Starch– plants
Glycogen– Animals
Cellulose– Plants
Importance of Glucose
supplies energy to RBC and skeletal muscle and brain tissue and the heart
Adrenaline that increases blood sugar
Increases gluconeogenesis (steroid hormone)
Lowers blood sugar
Saturated fats
No double bonds between carbons, solid at room temp
Unsaturated fatty acids
At least one double bond between carbons
Trans double bond
Carbons and hydrogens aren’t on the same side of the molecule; doesn’t exist in nature
CIS bonds
hydrogen and carbon on same sides; exists in nature, bent at bond
Builds up on walls of coronary arteries, narrowing the diameter for blood flow an providing a surface for platelet adhesion. The liver regulates production of LDL receptors to remove blood plasma.
prevent platelet adhesion (made by endothelial cells)
plugs wounds (made in platelets)
Polymers of amino acids, composed of 20 Amino Acids and linked by peptide bonds
Carbons can be turned into glucose and other parts can be turned into fat
AA:S where they can only be used to make fat, no glucose
Metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbs (glycerol, AA’s)
These are the inactive form in which an enzyme is made. Activation includes the removal of part of the protein. This protects the enzyme-making organs from attacks.
GI Tract
Mouth (amylase) > Esophagus > Stomach (lipase, pepsin) > small intestine (absorption of nutrients… Maltase, lactase, sucrose) > Colon (absorption)
Types of Absorption
i. Passive- no energy, H2O and nonpolar molecules
ii. Facilitated- No energy, polar molecules (fructose)
iii. Active- energy needed, against concentration gradient (glucose)
iv. Endocytosis- energy needed, engulfs in membrane
Fatty Acid Metabolism
i. Excess glucose > FA’s > Triglycerides
ii. Excess glucogenic AA’s > glucose
iii. Excess ketogenic AA’s > FA’s > triglycerides
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E, K
Water Soluble Vitamins
B (B-6, B-12), Stress Folate, C
Free Radicals
substance with an odd number of electrons that has formed in the presence of oxygen reacting with organic compounds to form free radicals and other toxic substances. This superoxide can then damage cells itself, produce H2O2 (toxic), or react with hydroxyl radicals (BAD).
Antioxidant Vitamins
A, E, C, beta-carotene: Scavenge free radicals and protect cells from effects
Trace Minerals
Selenium, Iron, Iodine
Definitions of Cancer
1. Clonality- cancer originates from a single cell
2. Autonomy- Cell growth not regulated by normal mechanisms
3. Anaplasia- Lack of normal, coordinated differentiation
4. Metastasis- Dissemination to other parts of the body

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