October flash cards

What is the Quantum leap or atomic spectra process?
electrons absorb energy and jump up to the excited state — the release energy as light (colors) and jump down to a lower level
How are metals and nonmetals different?
metals are good conductors and are usually silver/grey and malleable, but nonmetals are poor conductors and are brittle
What are valence electrons?
outer shell electrons
When are elements SIMILAR?
If they are in the same group/ same valence electrons
What is the atomic number?
number of PROTONS
What is the number of neutrons?
MASS – Protons
What is an isotope?
same element, same atomic number, different mass, different neutrons
What is the atomic mass (average)?
Average of an isotope’s masses
What is an ORBITAL?
a high probability area outside the nucleus where electrons are located
Where are electrons located?
orbitals
What are nucleons?
protons and neutrons
What are the numbers of protons and electrons in a neutral atom?
protons and electrons are the same number in a neutral atom
When an atom loses electrons, what happens to the mass?
nothing – electrons weigh almost 0 amu
What is the mass of a proton or neutron?
1 amu
What is Ionization Energy?
the amount of energy it takes to remove an electron
How does Ionization energy change as you go across a period? Why?
IE increases as you go across the table because atoms get smaller and hold onto their electrons more tightly. so it takes more energy to remove them
How does Ionization energy change as you go down a group? Why?
IE decreases as you go down the table because atoms get larger and hold onto electrons more loosely, so it takes less energy to remove them
How does Atomic Radius change as you go across a period?
Radius gets smaller as you go across because the nucleus pulls the electrons into more closely and more tightly
How does Atomic Radius change as you go down a period?
Radius gets larger as you go down a group because there are more shells and the electrons are held more loosely
How do you draw an atom?
Draw the nucleus and write the protons and neutrons inside. Then draw the shells/rings and use the electron configuration from the periodic table to put the electrons in the shells.
How do you draw a LEWIS diagram?
Write the symbol and put the dots to represent the VALENCE (outer) electrons only
What is electronegativity?
The ability to attract electrons
What are NOBLE gases?
group 18 gases – they are full and happy – they do not react usually also zero electronegativity
What are HALOGENS/ HALIDES?
Group 17 fluorine, chlorine, etc
What 2 things did Rutherford learn from his GOLD FOIL experiment?
atoms are mostly empty space and atoms have a tiny, dense nucleus
Which particle is negative?
electrons
Which particles have the same mass?
protons and neutrons
Which particle is positive?
proton
Which particle is neutral?
neutrons
Which side of the Periodic Table are metals usually found?
left
Which side of the Periodic Table are nonmetals usually found on?
right
What subatomic particle has almost no mass?
electron
how do you calculate the number of neutrons?
mass number – atomic number
How do you know mass number?
It is given in the notation
How do you find atomic number ?
It is on the periodic table.
How do you find number of protons?
same as atomic number
How do you find the number of electrons?
it is the same as protons. Atoms are neutral so positive and negative must balance.
How do you know if elements are isotropes?
they have the same element symbol, same atomic number, but different mass and different neutrons
How do you know if elements are allotropes?
They are the same element, but different formulas, shapes, structures, properties
Where do I find the ground state e- configuration?
on the periodic table
What is the excited state?
when an e- has absorbed energy and jumped up a level.
What si the difference between quantitative and qualitatitve?
quantitative is number data; qualititative is descriptive
What is the difference between an observation and an inference?
Observations are facts gained from your 5 senses; inferences are your Ideas/thoughts about your observations
What are the 7 diatomics?
H2,O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
how do you calculate the number of neutrons?
mass number – atomic number
Why are metals good for pots and pans?
they conduct heat well , to cook the food evenly
Why are metals used for wires?
metals are ductile and conduct electricity well because metals lose e- easily which allows electricity to flow
What is Ionization Energy?
the amount of energy it takes to remove an electron
In Rutherford’s experiment , MOST of the alpha particles went through UNDEFLECTED, this meant…
that atoms were mostly empty space
In Rutherford’s experiment, A FEW of the alpha particles were repelled backward and scattered, this meant…
that atoms have a small dense core in the middle called the nucleus
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