principal quantum number, size and energy of orbital
orbital angular momentum quantum number, shape of orbital; can be 0, 1, 2, … n-1
magnetic quantum number, orientation in space; -l, … l
Radial distribution function
probability that the electron will be found at a particular radius regardless of the direction; is always zero at the nucleus
Pauli exclusion principle
no more than 2 electrons may occupy any given orbital. If 2 electrons are in 1 orbital, their spins must be opposite. No 2 electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.
Radii increase down a group because outermost electrons occupy shells farther from the nucleus. They decrease across a period because new electrons are in the same shell of the atom. The increased effective nuclear charge draws electrons in.
All cations smaller than parent ion. Anions larger than ions.[image]
First ionization energy decreases down a group, increases from left to right across a period. It decreases down a group because the outermost electron occupies a shell farther from the nucleus and is less tightly bound. the 2nd ionization energy is always higher than the first. [image]
Energy released with an electron is added to a gas-phase atom. Eea is highest towards upper right of PT. Incoming electron occupies a p-orbital close to the nucleus. The 2nd Eea of O and S is negative because the 2nd electron is repulsed by the negative charge already present. [image]