Organic

molecular orbital
2 atomic orbitals combined
bonding orbital (lower energy)
if signs of wave functions are the same
antibonding orbital (higher energy)
if the sign of the wave functions are different
sigma bond
head to head
pi bond
parallel
double bond
one sigma one pi bond
triple bond
one sigma two pi bonds
alkanes

-hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds

-CnH2n+2

-end with “ane”

-saturated

meth-
one carbon atom
eth-
2 carbon atoms
prop-
3 carbon atoms
but-
4 carbon atoms
pent-
5 carbon atoms
hex-
6 carbon atoms
number of isomers _______ as carbon atoms increase
increase
major constituents of petroleum
alkanes
alkenes

-hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon double bonds

-CnH2n

-suffix “ene”

-unsaturated

alkynes

-hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon triple bonds

-suffix “yne”

-unsaturated

cyclic

-form a ring

-prefix “cyclo”

aromatics

-certain unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons

-cyclic planar, higher degree of stability due to resonance

alcohols
-contain -OH
-higher boiling pt due to H bonding
ethers
-compounds containing C-O-C
-no hydrogen bonding so low BP
carbonyl
-contain C-O double bond
aldehyde
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keytone
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esters
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carboxylic acid
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carboxylic acids

-hydrogen bonding

-form micelles

carbohydrate
-Cn(H20)m
amine
-NH2
amino acid contains
-amine group, carboxyl group, side group R
amide
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