organic chem functional groups 1

Aromatic

  •  ring structure 
  • [image]

ALDEHYDES

  • RCHO
  • trigonal planar arrangement
  • part of carbonyl group

[image]

haloalkanes. (Alkyl halides)

  • compounds in which a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine) replaces a hydrogen atom of an alkane
  • generic formula for an alkyl halide is where X  fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.
[image]

alcohols

  • characteristic functional group of this family is the hydroxyl ( OH) group attached to an sp3-hybridized carbon atom.[image]

ether

  • general formula R O Ror R O R, where R may be an alkyl (or phenyl) group different from R [image]

amine
[image]
KETONES
[image]
Carboxylic Acids

  • Carboxylic acids have a carbonyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group
  • [image]

Esters

  • general formula RCO2R (or RCOOR), where a carbonyl group is bonded to an alkoxyl ( OR) group
  • [image]

Amides

  • Amides have the formulas RCONH2, RCONHR, or RCONRR where a carbonyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom bearing hydrogen and/or alkyl groups.
  • [image]

Nitriles

                        [image]

phenyl group

                      [image]

x

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