Organic Chemistry 1: Final

SO3H
strong electron withdrawing = meta
NO2
strong electron withdrawing = meta
CN
strong electron withdrawing = meta
CH3-C=O
strong electron withdrawing = meta
Cl, Br, I (halogens)
weak electron withdrawing = ortho, para
alkyl groups
strong electron donating groups = ortho, para
OH
weak electron donating = ortho, para
OCH3
weak electron donating = ortho, para
NH2
weak electron donating = ortho, para
electron withdrawing group
react slow (worse nucleophile)
electron donating group
react fast (better nucleophile)
pKa and charge
lower with charge
pKa and size
lower with larger atom
pKa and p character
more p character = higher pKa
pKa and s character
more s character = lower pKa
pKa and resonance
resonance = lower pKa
hybridization and bond length trend
sp3 > sp2 > sp
atom size and bond length trends
smaller atom = shorter bonds
tosyl chloride plus pyridine
makes OH good leaving group

Cl-S(=0,=0)-Ph

NH2 + single bond
takes H and LG and makes alkene
x

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