Organic Chemistry

organic compounds contain ______
carbon
organic compunds are ____,____,____,____
nonpolar, react slower, nonelctrolytes (except organic acids), low melting point
a carbon must have how many bonds?
four
carbons can bond to one another with ___,___,and ___ bonds
single, double, triple
hydrocarbon
a compund that contains hydrogen and carbon only
saturated hydrocarbon
alkanes, single bonds only
unsaturated hydrocarbon
alkenes and alkynes, double or triples bonds (multiple bonds)
to identify organic acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ethers, halides, amines, amides, amino acids…use table __?
R
these impart distinctive physical and chemical properties to organic compounds
functional group
isomers
same moleculare formula, but different structural formulas (different properties)
multiple covalent bonds
more than one pair of electrons shared
substitution
alkane -> 2 products
addition
alkene or alkyne -> 1 product
fermentation

glucose -> ethanol + CO2

 C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

esterification
organic acid + alcohol -> ester + water
saponification
makinf of soap from a fat (look for Na)
combustion
hydrocarbon + O2 -> CO2 +H2O + heat
polymer
long chain of repeating units (monomers)
natural polymer
proteins, starch, cellulose
synthetic polymers
polyXXXXX, nylon, rubber, plastics
condensation polymerization
linking of monomers by the removal of water
addition polymerization
linking of monomers by the “opening” of double bonds
dihydroxyl alcohol (2OH’s)
1,2 ethanediol
trihydroxyl alcohol
glycerol
primary alcohol
one;C is bonded to the C that is bonded to the OH
secondary alcohol
2 C’s are bonded to the C that is bonded to the OH
tertiary alcohol
3 C’s are bonded to the C that is bonded to the OH
x

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