Organic Chemistry

methane
one carbon
ethane
2 carbons
propane
3 carbons
butane
4 carbons
diols
molecules with two hydroxyl groups
vicinal
diols with hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbons
geminal
diols with hydroxyl groups on the same carbon
epoxide
cyclic ethers with 3 members (also called oxiranes)
strong bulky bases prefer ___ over ___ reactions
E2 over SN2
CN is a strong
nuc
long chains have ____ boiling points
high
branced chains have ___ boiling points
low
cis v trans BP?
cis is higher
are meso compounds optically active?
NO
conjugated system
two or more double or triple bonds separated by a single bond
structural isomers
share only molecular formula–constituional isomers
geometric isomers
differ in position of subsituents attached to a double bond (cis v trans)
chiral
non superimposable mirror images
entantiomer
chiral objects that are non superimposible mirror images
diasteromers
steroisomers that are not mirror images
number of possible stereoisomers
2^n n=number of chiral centers
meso
have a mirror image that is superimposable–mirror plane of symmetry
conformational isomers
differ only by rotation about one or more single bonds–same compound in a different position
symmetrical has a ___ MP
high
branching is ___ dense
less
combustion
alkane oxygen to make carbon dioxide water and heat
pyrolysis
molecule is broken down by heat– cracking
free radical halogenation
one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alogen atoms
steps of free radical halogenation
1. initiation
2. propagation
3. termination
protic solvent
capable of H bonding
weak bases make
good leaving groups
stronger nucleophiles are
stronger bases
how many steps in a SN1 reaction?
two
order of a sn1 reaction?
first
how many steps in an sn2 reaction?
one
need a strong nuc for ___ reaction
SN2
sn2 is what order rxn?
second
sn1 or sn2 gives inversion of stereochem?
sn2
higher temps favor ___ over ___
E1 over SN1
strong base favors ___ over ___
E2 over SN2
criterion for aromaticity
4n + 2 pi electrons
order of reactivity
acyl halides > anhydrides > esters >amides
x

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