Organic Chemistry

what makes carbon so special in reactions

tetravalence

 

for carbon to bond ionically it would have to give up or take 4 e-

 

it shares four ways instead

how do you find the outer most electrons of an atom?
take the highest "coefficients" of the spdf and count up the electrons here
s and p orbitals (shape)
sphere and dumbell
sigma bond

s orbital X 2

 

oval

sp3
1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals
sp2

(1 s orbital+ 2 p orbitals) + 1 unchanged p

sp

(1 s orbital + 1 p orbital ) + 2 unchanged p

pi bond

2 p orbitals interacting

 

nature of nitrogen

sp3

 

but one loop is lone electrons that dont usually wanna bond with anything else

electronegativity pattern

HIGHEST at flourine

 

lessons moving diagonally down to right

Keq

[product]

———

[starting]

dipole moment
SUM of polarized bonds
pKa

lower pKa–>stronger acid

 

logKa

 

 

log10000
4
ACID BASE THEORY

bronsted-lowry

acid: proton donor

base:proton acceptor

 

lewis

acid:electron acceptor

base:electron donor

determiners of Lewis acids/bases

Base: extra electrons

 

Acid: vacant–low energy bond, polar bond to H

 

also B and Al (with three bonds) can stretch to make room for another–like a vacant orbital

–>acids

what is the amount of rotation for comformational analysis?
60 degrees
tortional vs steric strain

steric=bulk such as gauche

 

tortional=eclipsing.bending.torting

ring angle equations

(n-2)*180

————

2

how much E is needed for a chair-chair conversion of cyclohexane?

45 Kj/mol
dihedral angle

angle between two H’s on a molecule

;

to find, use Newman projection and divide up like a pie

1-3 diaxial interaction
gauche like interaction between Hydrogens that are two carbons apart in cyclohexane
what are the two broadest types of reaction and how do we differeniate between them

radical: heterolytic cleavage

;

Polar Covalent: homolytic cleavage

steps to radical reaction

initiation

propagation

termination

what types of G figures are there for describing reactions?

G noght: change in overall free energy (start point–finish point difference)

 

delta G: describes individual steps

 

G daggar: energy of activation

hyperconjugation
interaction between empty C orbitals and alpha hydrogens
what are the two ways to rearrange carbacations?

hydride shift

methyl migration

x

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