ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Orbitals
Where electrons that are bound to nuclei are found. An allow energy state for an electron, with an associated probability function that defines the distribution of electron density in space
Electon Density
The probablility of finding the electron in a particular part of the orbital
Node
A region of zeron electron density
Degenerate orbitals
Orbitals with identical energies
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
We can never determine exactly where the electron is
Pauli exclusion principle
Each orbial can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, provided that their spins are paired.
Aufbau principle
Build up the electronic configuration of an atom’s ground (most stable) state
Valence Electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell
Hund’s Rule
When there are two or more orbitals of the same energy, electrons will go into different orbitals rather than pair up in the same orbital
Ionic Bond
Results when ions have opposite charges and they attract each other . Usually results in the formation of a large crystal lattice rather than individual molecules.
Covalent Bonding
Electrons are shared rather than transfered
Lewis Structure
Symbolizes the bonding in a covalent molecule, where each valence electron is symbolized by a dot or by a dash.
Nonbonding Electrons
Valence-shell electrons that are not shared between two atoms, often called a lone pair
Single Bond
The sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
Double Bond
The sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
Triple Bond
The sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
Acetylene
What is the common name for Ethyne?
4
Carbon ususally forms how many bonds?
3
Nitrogen usually forms how many bonds?
1
How many lone pairs does Nitrogen have in a stable state?
2
How many lone pairs does oxygen have in a stable state?
2
Oxygen usually forms how many bonds?
1
How many bonds does a hydrogen form?
0
How many lone pairs does hydrogen have in a stable state?
3
How many lone pairs does a halogen have in its stable state?
1
How many bonds does a Halogen usually form?
Valence
What is another term for the number of bonds an atom usually forms?
Polar Bond
When one of the bonding electrons are attracted more strongly to one of the two nuclei. An unequally shared pair of bonding electrons
Formal Charges
A methond for keeping track of charges, showing what charge would be on an atom in a particular Lewis Structure
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