Organic Chemistry

organic chemsitry
the study of carbon-containing compounds, typically containing carbon-carbon bonds
biochemsitry
the study of the chemistry of living systems
functional group
an atom or group of atoms that imparts characteristic chemical properties to an organic compound
alkanes
compounds of carbon and hydrogen containing only C-C bond
alkenes
compounds of carbon and hydrogen containing at least one C=C bond
alkynes
compounds of carbon and hydrogen containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond
aromatic hydrocarbons
hydrocarbon compounds that contain a planar, cyclic arrangement of carbon atoms linked by both omega and delocalized pi bonds
structural isomers
compounds possessing the same formula but differing in the bonding arrangements of the atoms
alkyl groups
a group that is formed by removing a hydrogen atom from an alkane
cycloalkanes
saturated hydrogen of general formula CnH2n in which the carbon atoms form a closed ring
geometric isomerism
a form of isomerism in which compounds with the same type and number of atoms and the same chemical bonds have different spatial arrangements of these atoms and bonds
addition reaction
a reaction in which a reagent adds to the two carbon atoms of a carbon-carbon multiple bond
substitution reaction
reactions in which on atom (or group of atoms) replaces another atom (or group of atoms) within a molecule; substitution reactions are typical for alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons
alcohols
an organic substance obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon
ethers
a compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to one oxygen
carbonyl group
the C=O double bond, a characteristic feature of several organic functional groups, such as ketones and aldehydes
aldehydes
an organic compound that contains a carbonyl group to which at least one hydrogen atom is attached
ketones
a compound in which the carbonyl group occurs at the interior of a carbon chain and is therefore flanked by carbon atoms
carboxylic acid
a compund that contains the COOH functional group
esters
an organic compound that has an OR group attached to a carbonyl; it is the product of a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
amides
an organic compound that has an NR2 group attached to a carboxyl
hydrolysis
a reaction with water; when a cation or anion reacts with water, it changes the pH
saponification
hydrolysis of an ester in the presence of a base
chiral
a term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image
proteins
a biopolymer formed from amino acids
amino acids
a carboxylic acid that contains an amino group attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxylic acid functional group
peptide bonds
a bond formed between two amino acids
polypeptides
a polymer of amino acids that has a molecular weight of less than 10,000
primary structure
the sequence of amino acids along a protein chain
secondary structure
the manner in which a protein is coiled or stretched
tertiary structure
the overall shape of a large protein, specifically, the manner in which sections of the protein fold back upon themselves or intertwine
quatenary structure
the structure of a protein resulting from the clustering of several individual protein chains into a final specific shape
alpha helix
a protein structure in which the protein is coiled in the form of a helix with hydrogen bonds between C=O and N-H groups on adjacent turns
beta sheet
a structural form of protein in which two strands of amino acids are hydrogen-bonded together in a zipperlike configuration
folding
the process by which a protein adopts its biologically active shape
carbohydrates
a class of substances formed from polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones
glucose
a polyhydroxy aldehyde whose formula is CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO; it is the most important of the monosaccharides
monosaccharide
a simple sugar, most commonly containing seix carbon atoms; the joining together of monosaccharide units by condensation reaction results in formation of polysaccharides
polysaccharide
a substance made up of many monosaccharide units joined together
starch
the general name given to a group of polysaccharides that acts as energy-storage substances in plants
glycogen
the general name given to a group of polysaccharides of glucose that are synthesized in mammals and used to store energy from carbohydrates
lipids
a nonpolar molecule derived from glycerol and fatty acids that is used by organisms for long-term energy storgae
phospholipids
a form of lipid molecule that contains charged phosphate groups
nucleic acids
polymers if high molecular weight that carry genetic information and control protein synthesis
nucleotides
compounds formed from a molecule of phosporic acid, a sugar molecule, and an organic nitrogen base; nucleotides form linear polymers called DNA and RNA which are involved in protein synthesis and cell reproduction
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a polynucleotide in which the sugar component is deoxyribose
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a polynucleotide in which ribose is the sugar component
double helix
a structure for DNA that involves the winding of two DNA polynucleotide chains together in a helical arrangement. The two strands of double helix are complementary in that the organic bases on the two strands are paired for optimal hydrogen bond interaction
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