Organic Chemistry ch 14

Stereoisomers
molecules with the same sequence of atoms but different orientation of groups in space
Optical Isomers
A structure & its mirror image which cannot be superimposed on each other (enantiomers), rotate light(polarized) differently
Asymmetric
No plane of symmetry
Chiral Center
an atom that is bonded to 4 different groups
D-isomer/Dextrorotary
Rotates polarized light RIGHT
L-isomer/Levorotary
Rotates polarized light LEFT
Organic Chemistry
Chemistry of C atom
Catenation
C’s ability to bond repeatedly to itself
Saturated Hydrocarbons
No multiple bonds, saturated with H
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
contains double or triple bond(s)
Straight Chains/Normal H-C
No Branches, not really straight
Not Normal H-C
Branched
Gen. Formula of Alkane
CnH(2n+2)
Isomers
molecules with the same molecular formulas but different structural formulas
IUPAC
International Union of Pure & Applied Chemists, Nomenclature system
Conformations
One specific geometry of a molecule
paraffin
reactivity of sat. H-C not enough activity, needs E/very reactive particle(free radical)
Halogenation
Reaction of H-C and halogen
mechanism
complicated free radical substitution need high temp(flame) to initiate reaction
combustion engine
combustion of H-C produces large volumes of gases & large amounts of heat. Rapid formation of gases @ high T & P drives pistons/turbine blades
knocking
gas burns too rapidly, piston receives single hard slam, knocking/pinging sound, reduced efficiency
octane number
measure of resistance to knock(add MTBE to improve)
pyrolysis/cracking
converts straight-chain alkanes into more desirable branched-chain ones
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