Organic Chemistry Vocabulary

aliphatic compound
a carbon chain, or a ring of carbon made from a carbon chain
aromatic compound
a carbon ring with free electrons floating above and below the carbons
hydrocarbon
a hydrogen and carbon molecule
alkane
a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds. They are saturated.
saturated
each carbon has four atoms bonded to it. No double/triple bonds are present.
alkyl group
an R group, essentially an alkane that’s missing one H
substituent
an atom or a group of atoms that takes the place of an H
structural isomer
same formula, different structure
alkene
a hydrocarbon containing one or more double bonds, making it unsaturated by the way
unsaturated
a hydrocarbon which has a carbon atom which is bonded to fewer than four other atoms, normally due to a double or triple bond.
alkyne
a hydrocarbon containing one or more triple bonds
cyclic aliphatic compound
a hydrocarbon in a ring that does not have free electrons
delocalized electrons
a term for the electrons in an aromatic compound, such as a benzene ring, where all electrons for all carbons are free to roam
functional group
a group of atoms which takes the place of an H in a hydrocarbon and changes the structure and reaction pattern of a hydrocarbon
alkyl halide
an alkyl group which has a halogen bonded to it
aryl group
an -Ar group, essentially an aromatic hydrocarbon with one of the H’s missing.
aryl halide
a halogen bonded to an aryl group
alcohol
R-OH
polyhydroxy alcohol
a hydrocarbon which has more than one alcohol functional groups
ether
R-O-R
aldehyde
Essentially R-C=O and an additional H bonded to the C. Must be at the end of a molecule
carbonyl group
C=O
ketone
aldehyde, but in the middle of a hydrocarbon (and missing the H)
carboxylic acid
C bonded to an alcohol and double bonded to an O
carboxyl group
COOH group
fatty acid
carbon chains with twelve to twenty C, with a carboxyl group on the end.
ester
when the hydrogen of the carboxyl group is replaced with another hydrocarbon alkyl group
amines
ammonia is the parent, form when hydrogen is replaced with other atoms or grops of atoms. So go from NH3 to N with up to three other things bonded to it instead of H
amide
form when an amine takes the place of the -OH in carboxylic acid. So the N is bonded to the C and to two hydrogens
substitution reactions
replace one part of a molecule with another
addition reaction
when a double bond or triple bond is broken and two or more atoms or groups of atoms are added.
condensation reactions
when molecules combine and give off a water molecule
polymers
substances that consist of huge molecules that have repeating units
esterfication
the process by which a hydrocarbon with an alcohol group and a hydrocarbon with a carboxylic acid join in a condensation reaction to form an ester and give off a water molecule
hydrolysis
when water works into the functional group of a hydrocarbon and breaks it into two hydrocarbons, one with an alcohol, the other with a carboxylic acid functional group.
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