Organic Lab 1

List First Step of Functional Group Lab
Solubility Test
Step after Insoluble
Litmus
. red Carboxylic acid
.blue amine
Step after Soluble
Solubility in 5% NaOH
.soluble
.COOH
.insoluble
.5% HCl
.insoluble
.neutral compound
.soluble
.base (Amine)
Step after Litmus or 5% HCl
.Neutral compund
. 2,4 DNP
.precipitate
.carbonyl compounds: ketone or aldehyde
.no precipitate
. Chromic Acid
Step after 2,4 DNP no reaction
.Chromic Acid
.no reaction
.possible Alkene
. Bromine/CCl4 test
.reaction (green color)
.alcohol
Step after 2.4 DNP reaction
.Tollen’s Test
-no reaction
ketone
-reaction(Silver coating)
aldehyde
Functional Groups ….
-sites of reaction
-determine physical properties
-used to classify compounds into groups by reactivity
-sere as basis of naming
Solublitly in water
If soluble in water, polar functional groups and low molecular weight
-5 carbons or less
Br2 in CCl4
Color change of reagent from brick red to colorless indicates presence of alkenes
Chromic Anhydride
Oxidation Reaction
-1, 2 degree alcohols are green color
-3 degree and other functional groups (no reaction) stays orange
2,4- DNP tests for carbonyl carbon
(C=O) of a ketone or aldehyde
-yellow,orange,rd precipitate
Tollens Test
.Aldehydes
.silver coating in test tube
.Silver Nitrate & Na I/ Acetone
presence of Cl,Br or I
SEperation of substance is based
on their solubility (miscibility)
Most extractions are
liquid-liquid extractions
If two liquids are immiscible
Meaning you two layers in the separator funnel
Compounds dissolved in one liquid through a reation
will change their solubility and they move to the other
Never add solids to
the sep funnel
When adding Sodium Bicarbonate to Caffeine
do in a beaker, then transfer to sep. funnel
MgSO4 and Na2SO4
drying agents
After drying each componet
gravity filter into weighted flask and then cover loosely
Infrared Spectroscopy gives you information about
funcional groups
Infrared Spectroscopy
.Can ID compounds
.Id functional groups in compounds
. Tells you how pure sample is
.Can be done with solids, liquids, and gases
Spectrum is seen as series of absorption peaks with
different shape and intensity
peaks appear at
characteristic frequencies for functional groups
TLC’s are
.simple, quick and inexpensive
.resonable sensitive and require only a small amount
used to identify unknowns and further analysis
Stationary phase
compounds are separated by attraction
Solvent
Compounds are separated by solubility
Solvents more similar to the mobile phase
will move the fastest and will be closet to the solvent front
mobile phase
.ethyl acetate
staionary phase
silica gel (polar pores)
Other than polarity movement can be based on
H-bonding and intermolecular forces
polar molecules
stick moe, move less
non polar
stick less move more
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