Organic Reactions

catalyst for hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes
platinum
catalyst for alkylation of benzene
AlCl3
catalyst for halogenation of benezene
FeBr3
reaction conditions and reagent for halogenation of alkanes
heat, UV, Br-Br, F-F, Cl-Cl, I-I
products of complete combustion of hydrocarbons
carbon dioxide and water and energy
products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons
C, CO, H2O, energy
type of general reaction that alkanes and aromatics (benzene) undergo
substitution
type of general reaction that alkenes and alkynes undergo
addition
order of reactivity of halogens (most to least)
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
in an halogenation reaction of an alkane containing primary, secondary and tertiary carbons, which carbon will be preferentially halogenated?
tertiary
catalyst for reaction of benzene and nitric acid
H2SO4
nitric acid (limiting amounts) + benzene –>
nitrobenzene
what are the reaction products of limiting amounts of chloromethane with benzene in the presence of aluminum chloride?
methyl benzene and hydrogen chloride
catalyst for the reaction of fluorine and benzene
FeBr3
Markovnikov’s rule
“the rich get richer” (in terms of H)
ethyne + excess hydrogen (in the presence of Pt)–>
ethane
1-butene + hydrogen bromide –>
2- bromobutane
1-butene + water (in the presence of H2SO4)–>
2-butanol
markovnikov’s rule applies to
ractions of alkynes, alkenes (when an assymetrical reagent is used)
reaction where 2 atoms (or groups of atoms) are lost from adjacent C on an organic molecule with a multiple bond resulting
elimination
2-bromopentane + hydroxide –>
1-pentene + 2-pentene + water + bromide anion
oxidizing agent
KMnO4 (potassium permanganate)
primary alcohol + oxidizing agent (in the presence of sulfuric acid) –>
aldehyde
secondary alcohol + oxidizing agent (in the presence of H2SO4) –>
ketone
tertiary alcohol + oxidizing agent (in the presence of H2SO4) –>
no reaction
ethanol reacted in the presence of dilute H2SO4 yields _________
diethyl ether
ethanol reacted in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid yields____
ethene and water
what factor determines if a condensation or elimination reaction will occur with alcohols?
the catalyst – dilute or concentrated sulfuric acid
an ether reacted with HI produces
2 alkyl iodide molecules
an ether reacted with HBr produces
two alkyl bromide molecules
condensation reaction
a reaction where two molecules combine to form a larger product with the loss of a small molecule
elimination reaction
an organic reaction that results in the elimination of a small molecule from a larger molecule resulting in a multiple bond
hydration reaction
a reaction where a water molecule is added to a compound
x

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