ORGO

Carbonyl (group)
The functional group –C=O
addition reaction
A reaction in which a carbon–
carbon double bond is replaced by a single bond and a new molecule is added into the original double-bonded molecule
Benzene
A compound with the formula C6H6,
consisting of six carbon atoms in a ring structure with six delocalized electrons. It can also be found as a functional group, C6H5.
addition polymerization
A reaction in which many monomers with a carbon–carbon double bond react together in addition reactions to form a polymer chain.
Aldehyde
A homologous series in which the functional group CHO is found bonded to the first carbon
Combustion
The reaction of a hydrocarbon with oxygen at high temperatures in which the products are carbon dioxide and water.
Carboxyl group
The functional group –COOH
Decolorization
Removal of the colour of a bromine
solution by the reaction with an alkene.
Empirical formula
A formula that shows the simple
whole-number ratio of elements in a compound.
Ester
The functional group –CO-O- made up of a carbonyl group with another oxygen atom bonded to
it. This functional group is only found in the middle
of molecules, not at the end.
Free radical
A reactive species containing an unpaired electron that is the product of homolytic ?ssion.
Functional group
An atom or group of atoms that in?uences the chemical properties of a compound.
Heterolytic ?ssion
The breaking of a covalent bond in which one of the atoms involved in the bond retains both electrons from the bond, forming an anion, and the other atom (part of the molecule) forms a carbocation (Atoms that form covalent bond are different)
Homolytic ?ssion
The breaking of a covalent bond in which each atom involved in the bond retains one electron from the bond. (Atoms that form covalent bond are the same)
Hydration
An addition reaction between an alkene and steam.
Hydroxyl (group)
The functional group –OH
Hydrogenation
An addition reaction between an alkene and hydrogen gas.
Incomplete combustion
The reaction of a hydrocarbon with oxygen at high temperatures in which the products are carbon monoxide, and/or carbon and water.
Molecular formula
A formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in one molecule of a compound.
Reaction mechanism
A sequence of reaction steps
that shows in detail how a reaction possibly occurs
Saturated
A compound in which all
carbon–carbon bonds are single bonds.
SN1
Nucleophilic substitution reaction in which only
one species is needed to form the reactive intermediate
– Tertiary Alcohols undergo this
– Two steps involved
SN2
A nucleophilic substitution reaction in which two
species are needed to form the reactive intermediate.
– Primary Alcohols undergo this
– One step involved
Unsaturated
A compound that contains at least one carbon–carbon double or triple bond.
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