Cofactors are: Non-amino acid components of proteins Organic cofactors, such as NAD+ in lactate dehydrogenase, are exmaples of _________? Coenzymes What are covalently attached cofactors (i.e. heme in myoglobin)? Prosthetic groups What are the eight types of proteins? 1. Structural2. Contractile3. Transport4. Storage5. Hormonal6. Catalysis7. Protection8. Regulation Give some examples of structural protein Tendons, cartilage, … Continue reading "Protein"
When amino acids are classified by polarity, what is an example of a nonpolar amino acid? Hydrocarbon alkanes or aromatic What is an example of an acidic amino acid? Has COOH What is an example of a basic amino acid? Amines What is an example of a polar amino acid? Has alcohol What does the … Continue reading "protein b"
mass gram g volume liter L temperature celcius C time second s length meter m
colligative properties the physical characteristics of a solution that depend on the amount of solute (i.e. concentration) van’t Hoff factor (i) the multiplicative factor that descr ibes the extent of dissociation of a solute in a solution vapor pressure lowering (Raoult’s law) the amount of vapor produced by the solvent is reduced in the presence … Continue reading "Properties of Solutions"
Solvation attraction between solvent molecules & solute particles Hydration attraction between water molecules and solute particles Solubility Maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved at equilibrium at a given temp Saturated Solution all that can dissolve has dissolved Unsaturated Solution contains less than maximum amount of dissolved solute Supersaturated Solution contains more than maximum … Continue reading "Properties of Solutions"
mass measure of the amount of matter that an object contains volume measure of the space occupied by the object extensive property characteristic dependent on the amount of matter present in a sample intensive property characteristic dependent on the type of matter and not the amount of matter substance matter that has a uniform and … Continue reading "Properties of Matter"
Boyle’s Law P1V1=P2V2 Charles’s Law V1/T1=V2/T2 Avogadro’s Law V1/n1=V2/n2 Amonton’s Law P1/T1=P2/T2 Combined Gas Law P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT R=0.08206 STP T= 0C P=1atm V=22.4L Stoichiometry n=PV/RT Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures P1=X1Ptotal Kinetic Molecular Theory KE=1/2mu^2 u=sqrt(3RT/M) Diffusion/Effusion Rate1/Rate2=sqrt(M2/M1)
are solutions are heterogeneous or homogeneous? homogeneous what states can solutions be in any what happens if a solution is stirred? it dissolves more quickly does stirring effect how much solute dissolves? no, just the rate at which it dissolves why does a solute dissolve more quickly when stirred? the solute and solvent particles are … Continue reading "Properties of Solutions"
Surface Tension More if stronger attr. forces Capillary Action More if stronger attr. forces Vapor Pressure Higher if weaker attr. forces Evaporations Faster if weak attr. forces Volatility Higher if weaker attr. forces Viscosity Higher if stronger attr. forces Boiling Point Higher if stronger attr. forces Melting Point Higher if stronger attr. forces Enthalpy of … Continue reading "Properties of Liquids and Solids"
Alkali Metals most reactive metals reactive with water Alkaline Earth Metals reactive with water 2 valence electrons (which they lose to form 2+ ions) Transition Metals if put in a solution, will tchange solution’s color give off color (flame test) Inner Transition Metals Lathanides Actinides follow period trends, but not group trends (reason why they’re … Continue reading "Properties of Groups"
Metals Solid at room temp. (exception mercury)Most have silvery shine Generally malleable Can be twisted and drawn into wires Good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals 11 of the 17 are gases 1 (bromines) is a liquid 5 are solid (C,P,S,I,Se) and are brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricty None are silvery Several are … Continue reading "Properties of Elements"
Significant Figure Measured values which include all known digits plus one estimated digit. Density An intensive physical property of matter defined as the amount of mass per unit volume. Solution Another term for homogeneous mixtures. Concentration A measure of how much solute (usually solid) is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent (usually liquid) or … Continue reading "Properties and states of matter"
Definition of Chemistry Science that seeks to understand what matter does at an atomic and molecular level. Definition of Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space. Definition of Experiment collection of data under controlled or defined conditions. Used to validate hypothesis Definition of Chemical a substance that always has the same properties and composition … Continue reading "Prologue, Chapter 1, and Chapter 2"
hydrohalogenation the cl or br added on hydration OH alcohol halogenation trans 1,2-dibromidesBr and Br opposite bromohydrin formation Br and Oh opposite catalytic hydrogenation alkanes with all H cis hydroxylation cis 1,2-diolsOH and OH oxidative cleavage ketones or acids epoxide formation epoxides catalytic hydrogenation (2) alkanes, saturated H (pd/C)cis alkenes (lindlar) deprotenation of terminal alkyne … Continue reading "products"
Raw materials for the haber process. Air and natural gas The gases that react to make ammonia. Nitrogen and hydrogen The formula of ammonia. NH3 The temperature used in the Haber process. 450 C The pressure used in the haber process. 200 atm The catalyst used in the Haber process. Iron Optimum temperature for high … Continue reading "products from nitrogen"
Inside your body there is an amazing protection mechanism called the ______ ______. It is designed to defend you against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade your body. Immune System The major components of the immune system are (there are 8): Thymus, spleen, lymph system, bone marrow, white … Continue reading "Principles of Chemistry I: Immune system"
Conservation of Energy means: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can, however, be transformed from one form to another. Energy is defined as: the ability to do work. Work is defined as: a force applied multiplied by the distance moved. Kinetic Energy is: Energy in motion/Energy of motion Potential Energy is: Energy that … Continue reading "Principles of Chemistry III: Nutrition and Metabolism"
The body needs a continuous supply of the gas ___ (not cut off for more than minutes) and it is simultaneously trying to rid itself of excess amounts of the gas ___. O2 (Oxygen), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Pressure = Force/Area (Force divided by Area) One unit of measure for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), which … Continue reading "Principles of Chemistry II: Fluids"
what are the physics behind radiation therapy? radiation therapy works due to cellular absorption of radiation, leading to ionization of biologic materials ionizing radiation can be classified as ____ or _____ ? electromagnetic or particulate what are the 2 kinds of electromagnetic radiation? how are they produced? gamma rays (produced spontaneously from elements suchs as … Continue reading "principles of radiation oncology"
Macroscopic properties and behavior we can see (ex. color, flammibility, volume, mass) submicroscopic properties and behavior we can not see (ex. atoms, molecules, chemical bonds) Extensive Properties dependent on amount of sample (mass, volume) Intensive Properties independent of amount of sample; some can be used to identify substances (temp, density, gas pressure, melting point) SI … Continue reading "Principles of Chemistry I"
Organic compounds covalent bonds liquids/low melting solids/some gases slow rxn rate flammable not water soluble not a conductor when dissovled in water Alkane Nomenclature 1. find longest chain 2. find substituents and identify them with -yl ending 3. Position by lowest # and alpahbetical order, if there are more than one then use di, tri, … Continue reading "Principles of Biochem &organic"
Alkane C-H Alkene C=H Alkyne C=-C Aromatic Ring C=C-C=C-C=C-(loop to start) Haloalkane C-X(where x is a halogen) Alcohal C-O-H Ether C-O-C Amine R |R-N-R Aldehyde O || C / C C Ketone O || C / C C Carboxylic acid O || C / C O-H
what is the principal consequence of immunodeficiency? increased susceptibility to infection. a secondary immunodeficiency is increased CA risk what can immunodeficiencies result from? immunodeficiencies can result from defects in: lymphocyte maturation, lymphocyte activation, and defects in effector mechanisms (innate and adaptive) can pts with certain immunodeficiencies be at risk for autoimmunity? yes, pts with certain … Continue reading "primary immunodeficiencies"
1 atm in Torr 760 Torr 1 atm in Pa 101,325 Pa 1 atm in bar 1.01325 bar 1 atm in psi 14.696 psi 760 Torr 101325 Pa 14.696 psi 1.01325 bar
What are the types of pumps? 1]mechanical pump2]turbomolecular pump3]diffusion pump4]ion pump5]sublimation pump6]cryo pump What are the pressure regions and associated pressure range? Region A [760 to 10^-4 Torr]Region B [10^-4 to10^-8 Torr]Region C [10^-8 to 10^-11 Torr]Region D [10^-11 to 10^-15 Torr] What pump(s) are required to reach Region A (760 to 10^-4 Torr)? Mechanical … Continue reading "Pressure review"
Acid dissociation constant the ration of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the undissociated form; stronger acids have larger values than weaker acids Acidic solution any solution in which the hydrogen-ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide-ion concentration Alkaline solution a basic solution Amphoteric a substance that can act as both … Continue reading "Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapter 19"
3 solvent prop bronstedlewispolarity 2 bronsted prop 1. protic (H bond donor)2. Aprotic (no h bond donor) lewis prop 1. donor (good lewis base)2. nondonor (no lewis base prop) polarity Prop 1. polar2. nonpolar Polar, protic solvents H20CH3OHEtOH (alcohols)HCONH2excellent anion and cation stab polar aprotic solvents DMFDMSOHMPA CH3CNexcellent cation stabvery reactive nuc nonpolar protic sovlents … Continue reading "Prelim 2"
Known Observations before Dalton 1. most natural materials were mixtures of pure substances2. pure substances are elements or compounds3. a given compound always contains the same relative mass of the elements Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. elements are made up of small particles called atoms2. all atoms of a given element are identical3. the atoms of … Continue reading "Prelim 1"
-able "tending to" ,"able to" *lovable *comfortable -ful "full of" *thankful *cheerful -ish "acting like" *childish *selfish -less "without" -less "without" *homeless *hopeless
Giga G 10^9 Mega M 10^6 Kilo k 10^3 Hecto h 10^2 Deca da 10 Deci d 10^-1 Centi c 10^-2 Milli m 10^-3 Micro ? 10^-6 Nano n 10^-9