Pentose Phosphate Pathway

What are two other names for the pentose phosphate pathway?
Hexose monophosphate shunt and 6-phosphogluconate pathway
What are the products from PPP?
NADPH and ribose
Pentose into ________.
hexose
The non-oxidative part of the PPP gives you what?
glycolysis intermediates
NADPH comes from what part of the PPP?
oxidative
Ribose comes from what part of PPP?
Non-oxidative
Where does the PPP take place?
cytoplasm of liver, adipose cells, adrenal cortex, mammary glands, RBCs
The __________ phase is made up of 2 irreversible reactions.
oxidative
The _________ phase has many reversible reactions.
non-oxidative
The non oxidative phase is basically ________ rearranging.
carbon
Transketolase moves ___ carbons.
2
Transaldolase moves ___ carbons.
3
The first reaction on the non-oxidative path uses _________.
transketolase
Xylulose 5 Phosphate uses ____________ to become Sedoheptulose 7 phosphate in step ____.
transketolase; one
When there are high levels of NADP+, what enters the PPP?
G6P
When there are high levels of NADPH+, ____ enters ______.
G6P; glycolysis
Depends on the ratio of ______/_______.
NADPH+/NADP+
Glutathione peroxidase reduces ___ to ___.
H2O2 to H2O
The redox rxn oxidizes glutathione using what enzyme?
glutathione reductase
Without NADPH, the ________ part of the circle wouldn’t work and you would have __________ damage.
upper; free radical
The PPP includes ___ irreversible oxidative reactions, followed by a series of reversible ________-___________ interconversions.
2; sugar-phosphate
No ATP is directly __________ or __________ in the PPP.
consumed; produced
Carbon one of _______ is released as CO2.
G6P
2 _______ are produced for each ________ molecule entering the oxidative part of the pathway.
NADPH; G6P
The rate and direction of the reversible rxns of the PPP are determined by the _______ and _______ for _________ in the cycle.
supply and demand for intermediates
The PPP pathway provides a major portion of the body’s ________ which functions as a _________ __________.
NADPH; biochemical reductant
PPP also produces ________, required for biosynthesis of _________.
ribose 5 phosphate; nucleotides
The oxidative portion of the PPP consists of ___ rxns that lead to the formation of ___________, _____, and __ molecules of __________.
3; ribulose 5 phosphate, CO2; 2 ; NADPH
The oxidative portion of the pathway is particularly important in the _______, __________, and ________, which are active in the biosynthesis of ______, in the ____ _______ and _________.
liver, lactating mammary glands, adipose; fatty acids; adrenal cortex and eurythrocytes
Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes an _________ oxidation of _______ to 6 phosphogluconolactone in a reaction that is specific for ________ as its coenzyme.
irreversible; G6P; NADP+
The PPP is regulated primarily at the ________ reaction.
glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase reaction
_______ is a competitive inhibitor of G6P dehydrogenase.
NADPH
______ enhances G6PD gene expression, and flux through the pathway _________ in the well fed state.
insulin; increases
With increased demand for NADPH, the ratio of NADPH/NADP __________ and flux through the cycle increases in response to the enhanced activity of G6PH.
decreases
6 Phosphogluconoalcetone is __________ by 6 phosphogluconolacetone hydrolase.
hydralized
The hydralizing of 6 phosphogluconolactone is irreversible/reversible and is/is not rate limiting.
irreversible; is not
The irreversible hydrolization step produces what?
ribulose 5 phosphate, CO2, and a second NADPH molecule
The nonoxidative rxns of PPP occur in _____ cell types, synthesizing ________ and ______ _________.
all; nucleotides; nucleic acids
The nonoxidative rxns catalyze the interconversion of ___, ___, ____, ____, and ___ carbon sugars.
3-7
These reversible non oxidative rxns permit ____________ to be converted either to either ____________ for nucleotide sythesis or _______________, _______ and ______.
ribulose 5 phosphate; ribose 5 phosphate; glycolysis intermediates; F6P and G3P
What are we trying to reduce in order to combat oxidative stress?
hydrogen peroxide, or ROS (reactive oxygen species)
What can chemically detoxify hydrogen peroxide?
reduced glutathione
Diminished G6PD activity impairs the abillity of the cell to form the ____________ that is essential for the maintenance of the reduced glutathione pool.
NADPH
What can form from insufficient G6PD?
heinz bodies
Eurythrocytes require _________ to keep __________ reduced.
NADPH; glutathione
Glucose 6 phosphate is irreversibly converted to ribulose 5 phosphate, and ___ NADPH are produced.
2
NADPH inhibits what?
Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase
Because the non oxidative reactions are reversible they can be entered from ______ or ____ if ribose is needed and ________ is inhibited.
F6P; G3P; G6PD
________ is a source of reducing equivalents in _________ biosynthesis.
NADPH; reductive
What is used by glutathione peroxidase to reduce peroxide to water?
GSH
x

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