periodic law

PERIODIC LAW

states that when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their properties.

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GROUP 

a vertical column of elements in the periodic table arranged in order of increasing atomic number

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PERIOD

a horizontal row of elemnts in the modern periodic table

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REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENT

elements from groups 1,2, and 13-18 in the modern periodic table, possesing a wide range of chemical and physical properties.

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TRANSITION ELEMENT

elements in groups 3-12 of the modern periodic table and are further divided into transition metals and inner transition metals

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METAL 

an element that is solid at room temperature, a good conductor of heat and electricity, and generally is shiny

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ALKALI METAL

 

group 1 elements, except for hydration, they are reactive and usually exist as compounds with other elements

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ALKILINE EARTH METAL

 

group 2 elements in the modern periodic table and are highly active

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TRANSITION METAL

an element in groups 3-12 that is contained in the d-block of the periodic table and, with some exceptions, is characterized by a filled outermost s orbital of energy level n, and filled or partially filled d orbitals of every level n-1

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INNER TRANSITION METAL

a type of group B element that is contained in the f-block of the periodic table and is characterized by a filled outermost orbital, and filled or partially filled 4f and 5f orbitals

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VALENCE ELECTRON

electron in an atom’s outermost orbitals; determines the chemical properties of an atom

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LANTHANIDE SERIES

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in the periodic table, the f-block elements from period 6 that follow the element lanthnum

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ACTINIDE SERIES

in the periodic table, the f-block elements from period 7 that follow the element actinum

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NONMETAL

elements that are generally gases or dull, brittle solids that are poor conductors of heat and electricity

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HALOGEN

a higly reactive group 17 element

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NOBLE GAS

an extremely unreactive group 18 element

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METALLOID

an element that has physical and chemical properties pf beoth metals and nonmetals

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ION

an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge

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IONIZATION ENERGY

the energy required to remove an electron from gaseous atom

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OCTET RULE

states that atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas

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ELECTRONEGATIVITY

indicates the relative ability of an element’s atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond

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