Periodic Properties of the Elements

valence orbitals
orbitals that contain the outershell electrons of an atom
effective nuclear charge
the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom
bonding atomic radius
the radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state
electron affinity
the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion
metallic character
the extent to which an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties characteristic of metals
alkali metals
members of group 1A in the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
members of the group 2A in the periodic table
hydride ion
an ion formed by the addiction of an electron to a hydrogen atom
the name given to the O3 an allotrope of oxygen
members of group 7A in the periodic table
noble gases
members of group 8A in the periodic table

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