Periodic Table Trends

The atomic radius is affected by:
the # of protons and shells
More protons…

make the radius smaller

As you go across the periodic table…

the number of protons in each element goes down, therefore the atomic radii get smaller

As you go down the periodic table…

shells are added to the atom making the radii larger

Define ionization energy
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom: 500 kj/mol
Factors that affect the ionization energy of an atom
# of valence electrons, protons, and shells (distance increases/shielding effect)
As you go across the periodic table, the ionization energy…
goes up because you are adding more protons, therefore the attraction between the outermost electron and the protons is stronger, making it harder to pick off that electron
As you go down the periodic table, the ionization energy…
goes down because you are adding more shells, making it easier to pull off the outermost electron because of shielding
Define the shielding effect
when electrons shells block the outermost electron from the attraction of the protons in the nucleus
Define electronegativity
The relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when it’s bonded to another atom.
If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is…
under 1.67, the bond is polar covalent, over 1.67, the bond is ionic, 0, the bond is pure covalent
x

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