Periodic table(chapter6)

Periodic law
the statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number
Groups
a series of columns; families
Periods
rows
Representaive elements
the elements in groups 1,2, and 13 to 18 possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties
Transition elements
the elements in groups 3 to 12; elements a re classified as metals, non-metals, and metalloids
Metals
elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temperature, and good conductors of heat and electricity
Alkali metals
group 1 elements, except for hydrogen, they are reactive and usually exist as compounds with other elements
Alkanline earth metals
group 2 elements in the modern periodic table and are highly reactive
Transition metals
an element in groups 3-12 that is contained in the d-block of the periodic table and,with some exceptions, is characterized by a filled outermost s orbital of energy level n , and filled or partially filled d orbitals of energy levl n-1
Inner transition metal
a type of group B elemntcontained that is in the f-block of the periodic table and is characterized by afilled outermost orbital, and filled or partially 4f and 5f orbitals
Lanthanide series
the f- block elements from period 6 that follow the element lanthanum
Actinide series
the f-block elements from period 7 that follow the elements actinium
Nonmetal
elemenst that are generally gases or dull, brittle solids that are poor conductors of heat and electricity
Halogen
a highly reactive group 17 element
Noble gas
an extremely unreactive group 18 element
Metalloid
an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
Ion
an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
Ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
Octet rule
states that atoms lose,gain, or share electron in order acquire the stable electron configuration of a nolbe gas
Electronegativity
indicates the relative ability of an element’s atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond
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