Periodic Trends and the Periodic Table

the states of matter
-solids (s)
-liquids (l)
-gases (g)
the types of elements
-metals
-non-metals
-semi-metals
how the Periodic Table is arranged
arranged in rows of increasing atomic number and columns of increasing valence shells
periodicity (or “periodic trend”)
similarities across rows and down columns of the periodic table
ionization (potential) energy
the energy required for the process: X –> X+ + e, in the gas phase; basically the energy needed to remove an electron
the periodic trend for ionization energy
increases “left to right” and increases “bottom to top”; increases as you go northeast
electron affinity
the energy associated with the process: X + e –> X, also in the gas phase; basically an atom’s pull on electrons
the periodic trend for electron affinity
increases “left to right” and increases “bottom to top”; increases as you go northeast

also becomes more favorable as it increases

periodic trend for atomic radius
increases “right to left” and increases “top to bottom”; increases as you go southwest
periodic trend for effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
increases “left to right” and increases “bottom to top”; increases as you go northeast
ionic radius of cations vs. ionic radius of anions
cations (+) are smaller than the corresponding atom; anions (–) are larger than the corresponding atom
octet
the situation corresponding to an atom having 8 valence electrons; very stable “noble gas configuration”
effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom
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