Petroleum Section A

Which of these substances is not produced from petroleum starting materials?

 

1.  plastic bottle

2.  gasoline

3.  wax paper

4.  hand cream (moisturizer)

5.  cane sugar

6.  engine oil 

cane sugar – this comes from a plant.
How many hydrogens are in a 14 carbon alkane?

30 hydrogens.

 

Alkane general formula = CnH2n+2

Draw the structure of 3,4-diethyloctane. 

 

You can just show the “carbon backbone.”

[image]

 

Remember – the hydrogens are not shown, but they are there!

methylbutane

Name this compound:

 

 [image]

2-methylpropane
A single covalent bond contains how many electrons?
2 electrons
Fractional distillation separates petroleum fractions by taking advantage of different ___________ of the molecules.
boiling points
Name this molecule: CH3CH2CH3
Propane
Two molecules are isomers if
they have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
What is the general formula for an alkane?
CnH2n+2

Crude oil, or petroleum, is a

 

(renewable / nonrenewable) resource.

nonrenewable
The higher the boiling point of a molecule, the (weaker / stronger) the intermolecular forces holding those molecules to each other are.
stronger
Draw the electron dot structure of ethane.
[image]
The bond angles in methane (and all alkanes, in fact) measure _______ degrees.
109.5.  This creates what is called a tetrahedral shape.
How many electrons are in a methane molecule?
8
The smallest alkane is named ________ and has this

electron dot structure ________.

methane;       [image]
Are pentane and dimethylpropane isomers?
Yes they are.  They both have the molecular formula C5H12 but have different connectivity of their atoms – different structures.

[image]Name this molecule:

 

  [image]

2,2-dimethylbutane
What is a “butyl” group?

A 4-carbon chain that is connected to a larger hydrocarbon chain.

 

 

Hydrocarbon compounds with 1 to 4 carbon atoms are (solids / liquids / gases) at room temperature, and have (strong / weak) intermolecular forces.
gases ; weak

Why do carbon-to-carbon bonds have 109.5° bond angles between them?

 

 

This bond angle places the bonds as far apart from each other as possible.

What’s the difference between a structural formula, a condensed structural formula, and a molecular formula?

 

Use propane as an example.

A molecular formula just indicates the number of each atom:  C3H8.

 

A condensed structural formula assumes that you understand how the hydrogens are bonded to the carbons:  CH3CH2CH3.

 

A structural formula shows all of the bonds clearly:[image]



 

Name this compound:

 

 

[image]

 

  

2,5-dimethylheptane
Branching (increases / decreases) boiling point.
decreases.
When intermolecular forces are weak, the boiling point of the substance is (low / high).
Low.

Are these molecules isomers?

 

[image]      and      [image]

No – they are the SAME molecule.

Are these molecules isomers?

 

 

C — C — C — C — C — C      and      C — C — C — C — C
                                                                               |

                                                                               C

 

(only carbon skeleton shown)

 

 

No.  They are the same molecule.
The prefix in a hydrocarbon name indicates what?
The number of carbon atoms in the chain.
The first four hydrocarbon prefixes are

meth-

 eth-

 prop-

 but-

What’s my name?

 

 

[image]

Count Chocula
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

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