Pharmacology

inotropic effect
influnce the force of contraction of heart
chronotropic effect
influence rate of contraction of heart
dromotripic effect
influence rate of conduction of electrical impulses
cardiac outpit
efficiency of the heart as a pump, measured in liters/minute
Cardiac output equation
CO = SV x HR
Normal CO
3.5-8.0 liters/minute
Normal heart rate
60-80 beats/min
How hr is decreased
PNS via vagus nerve
how HR is increasedd
SNS-> catecholoamine release -> B1 stimulation -> increased hr and contractility
Stroke volume
amount of blood pumped out with each beat, normal value = 70 mls, determined by preload, afterload, contractiliy
preload
volume achieved during diastolic filling of ventricles, depended on venous return
what factors of drugs will increase preload?
-increased fluids, vasoconstrictors, increasing venous return
what factors or drugs will decrease preload?
lose volume, diuretics, dilation of blood vessels
afterload
force, resistance, how hard heart works to get blood to periphery (depends on blood pressure and peripheral resistance)
contractility
force of contraction. Inotropic response
cardiac worklod
effor the heart expends to pump blood, as increases so does O2 demands (hypertension, increased HR and catecholamines)
raroreceptor reflex
pressure sensitive receptors in the walls of blood vessels and ehart and respond to changes in strech of walls. Fall in BP -> increase HR and vasoconstric (reflex tachycardia)
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