Pharmacology

factors that lead to infection
Age: young and elderly
increased exposure to pathogenic organisms
disruption of the normal barriers
inadequate immunological defenses
impaired circulation
poor nutritional status
sources of infection
bacteria
fungi
viruses
antimicrobial classes
suldonamides
penicillin
cephalosporins
tetracycylines
macrolides
aminoglycosides
fluroquinolones
carbapenem
ketolides
penicillins
penicillins differ in their:
1.chemical stability in stomach acid
2.susceptibility to penicillinase
3.spectrum of action,i.e.,narrow or extended
4.route of administration
5. duration of action
6. site of action

penicillins are also called beta-lactams, which is a term relating to their agents with a similar chemical structure. theu are all virtually bactericidal agents with a similar chemical structure,and therefore a similar mechanism of action.

clients recieving penicillins
1.take a careful medication history before administering penicillins.
2.observe the client for indications of allergic reaction,including rash,fever,chills,and anaphylaxis.
3.oral penicillins should be given 1-2 hrs before or 2-3hrs after meals.
4.injection sites must be checked carefully for signs of local reactions(e.g,redness,phlebitis).Do not use the same needle for withdrawing the solution from the vial and administering it.
5. never give procaine penicillin intravenously.

penicillin G

benzathine and procaine combined

funct class: broad-spectrum antiinfective
chem. class: natural penicillin

action: interferes with cell wall replication of susceptible organisms; lysis is mediated by cell wall autolytic enzymes, results in cell death.

Pharmacokinetics: im:very slow absorption, duration 21-28 days, half-life 30-60 min; excreted in urine, feces, breast milk, crosses placenta.

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