Phys Chem – Test 3

Rule 1: The oxidation number of an atom in it’s elemental form is ____
0
Rule 2: The oxidation number of a simple ion is the ____ of the _____.
The oxidation number of a simple ion is the charge of the ion.
Rule 3: The oxidation number of hydrogen is ____, in it’s compounds with ___________.
Rule 3: The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1, in it’s compounds with non-metals.
Rule 4: The oxidation of oxygen in a ________ is usually ___.
Rule 4: The oxidation of oxygen in a compound is usually -2.
Rule 5: In a ________ compound, the sum of all the oxidation numbers must equal ______.
Rule 5: In a neutral compound, the sum of all the oxidation numbers must equal zero.
Rule 6: In a polyatomic ion, the _____ of the oxidation numbers must equal the ________ of the _______.
Rule 6: In a polyatomic ion, the charge of the oxidation numbers must equal the charge of the ion.
Reduction
Gain of electrons
Oxidation
Loss of electrons
Spectator Ion
Keeps the same charge as a reactant and a product, no evident change in that specific ion.
What needs to be present in a redox reaction.
An oxidant
A reductant
Spectator Ion (optional)
Reductant
The substance that causes another substance to undergo reduction and will oxidise itself.
Oxidant
The substance that causes another substance to undergo oxidation and will reduce itself.
Galvanic Cells
Are two cells that generally contain a metal and its metal solution(s)
How can we first write all the half equation of chemicals in galvanic cells?
Look at the electrochemical series.
Whichever comes first is written first (ranked). Then Circle what is present as a reactant in on the first line and product on the second line, if a line is drawn it should be negative otherwise no reaction!
Cathode in the galvanic cells
Is the positive terminal as it receiving electrons, these electrons travel in the solution it’s in making the solution negative.
Anode in galvanic Cells
Is the negative terminal and repels electrons given from the battery. This sends e’s away from it. The solution it’s in thus oxidises (loses electrons) and the solution becomes positive.
What stops the build up of too much charge in the solution of galvanic cells
A salt bridge, generally containing K+ and NO3-. They will attract oppositely charge solution to reduce the build up of charge and keep the reaction going.
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