Physical Properties of Matter

 

 

Energy

 

The ability to do work

 

 

Potential Energy

 

Stored Energy

 

Molecules or objects that are not moving have potential energy

 

 

Kinetic Energy

 

 

Energy of moving molecules or objects

 

Temperature

 

 

Average Kinetic Energy

Cold = Low energy

Hot = High energy

 

 

Types of Energy

 

 

Thermal, Chemical, Light, Nuclear,

Electrical and Mechanical

 

 

3 Laws of Conservation

 

MASS, CHARGE & ENERGY

must be conserved.

None can be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

 

 

Exothermic

 

 

Energy given off

 

 Negative — Δ H

Bonds Formed

 

 

Endothermic

 

 

Energy absorbed

 

Positive + ΔH

Bonds Broken

 

 

Temperature

 

 

Average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.

 

Hot= High KE  Cold = Low KE

 

 

Units of Energy

 

Calorie, Joule, Kilojoule

 

Cal, J, KJ

 

 

Specific Heat

 

the amounf of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius.

 

 

Pure Substances

 

Two things are considered pure substances

 

Elements: cannot be broken down

Compounds: can only be broken down using a chemical reaction, not a physical change.

 

 

2 Types of Mixtures

 Homogeneous: a uniform mixture (salt water), Solutions are water clear Homogeneous mixtures. Use (aq)- aqueous, to show if it is dissovled in water

Heterogeneous: having different parts that can still be seen (salad dressing)

 

 

 

KMT

 

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

 

Gas particles move constantly in straight lines, when they hit things, they lose no energy, and the particles are not attracted to each other (no intermolecular forces).

 

 

Properties of the 3 Phases of Matter

 

Solid– def vol. + shape, little movement of particles, only vibration.

 Liquid Def. volume, NO def shape. Particles spaced enough so they may slide past one another.

 Gas – No def vol. or shape. Exert pressure on surroundings or container.  

 

 

Mixtures are NOT pure substances, but can be made up of them. Mixtures can be DECOMPOSED by physical means.

Methods of Separation:

 

distillation    for liquids with different boiling points

evaporation  a liquid and dissolved solid

filtration        a undissolved soild and liquid

chromotography  a complex mixture

 

 

 

Phase Changes

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