physical science

vocabulary
Chapters 11-15+9 skip 14
Organic Compounds:
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon
Lipids:
Biochemicals that do not dissolve in water.
A fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties includes oils waxes and steriods.
Protein:
a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and regulate processes.
Nucleic acid:
biochemical’s made up of subunits called nucleotides.
motion:
an objects change in position over time relative to a refrence point.
average speed:
total distance traveled divided by the total time taken
velocity
the speed of an object as well as the object in a paticular direction
acceleration:
the rate at which veolocity changes over time an a obhect accelerates if it’s speed, direction or both change
force
a push or pull exerted on an object in order to change the moyion of the object;force has size and direction
chemical reaction:
the process by which one or more substances shange to produce one or more different substances
precipitate:
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction
exothermic reaction:
a chemical reaction in which heat is released to the surrondings
endothermic reaction:
a chemical reaction that requires heat
law of conservation of energy:
the law that states that energy cannnot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
chemical formula:
a combonation of chemical sybols and numbers to represent a substance
chemical equation:
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
reactant:
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
products:
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass:
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed im ordinary chemical and physical changes.
carbohydrates:
a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes starches, sugars and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
net force:
the combination of all of the forces acting on an object
balanced force:
when the net force on a n object is 0 Newtons
fricion:
a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
kinetic friction:
friction between moving surfaces
ststic friction:
a force applied to an object that causes it not to move
lubricants:
substances that reduce friction such ss oil, wax and grease
gravity:
the force of attraction between objects +that si dur to their mass
weight:
the measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the locatiom of the object in the universe
mass:
the measure of the amount of matter in an object
terminal velocity:
the constant velocity of a fallin gobject when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity
Free fall:
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body
vacuum:
a chamber with no matter or air
projectile motion:
the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched or otherwis projected near the surface of the earth
centripetal force:
an unbalanced force that makes things move in a eliptical path or circular path
newtons first law of motion:
An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
inertia:
the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if th object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction, until an outside force acts on an object
Newtons Second Law of Motion:
the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied
Newtons Third Law of Motion:
whenever oneobject exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal ad opposite force on the first
spectrum:
the band of colors produced when white light passes through a prism
apparent magnitude:
the brightness of stars as seen from earth
absolute magnitude:
the brightness that a star would have at a distance of 32.6 light-years from earth
light-year:
the distance that light travels in one year; about 9.46 trillion kilometers
parallax:
an aparent shift in the posistion of an object when veiwed from diffeerent locations
main sequence:
the location on the H-R diagram where most stars lie;it has a diagnol pattern from the lower right(low temperature ad luminosity) to the upper left(high temperature and luminosity)
H-R diagram:
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a graph that shows the relationship between a star’s surface temperature and absolute magnitude
supernova:
a gigantic explosion in which massive star collapses and throws its outer layers into space
galaxies:
a collection of stars and gas bound together by gravity
nebula:
a large cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space; a region in space where stars are born
solar nebula:
a rotating cloudof gas and dust from which the sun and olanets formed
astronomicall unit:
the average distance between earth and the sun approx. 150 million kilo
terrrestrial planets:
dense planets near closest to the sun mercury venus mars and earth
retrograde rotation:
the clockwise spin of a planet as seen from the n.pole
prograde rotation
the counter clockwise spin as seen from the n.pole
gas giants:
planets that have deep,massive atmospheres, such as jupiter saturn uranus and neptune
satellite:
a natrul or artifical body that revolves around a planet
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