Polyatomic ions

Hypochlorate
ClO-1
Chlorite
ClO2-1
Chlorate
ClO3-1
perchlorate
ClO4-1
Nitrite
NO2-1
Nitrate
NO3-1
Sulfite
SO32-
Sulfate
SO4-2
Nitride
N-3
Sulfide
S-2
Phosphate
PO4-3
Alpha Radiation
23892U —-> 42He +23490U
Beta Radiation

13153I —-> 0-1e + 13154 Xe

Neutron from the nucleus converts to a proton and electron and the electron is ejected

Gamma Radiation
High energy radiation, no mass, often, accompanies alpha or beta radiation, very penetrating
Positron Emission

4019K—-> 01 e + 4018Ar

Proton in the nulceus changes into a neutron and a “Positron” (Positive Electron)

Electron Capture
Electron Capture

Nucleus captures an inner electron + convers it into a proton and neutron

19780Hg +0-1e —-> 19779 Au

Diatomic Ions
Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2, F2
Theoretical Yield
How much product ideally can be produced
Percent Yield
Percent Yield = (Actual Yield/ Theo. Yield) * 100
Molarity
Molarity = Moles of solute/ Liters of solution
Carbonate
CO3-2
Perchloric acid, strong acid
HClO4
Sulfuric Acid, Strong Acid
H2SO4
Hydrobromic Acid, Strong Acid
HBr
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Phosphoric Acid, Weak Acid
H3PO4
Hydrofluoric Acid, Weak Acid
HF
Acetic Acid
CH3CO2H
Sodium Hydroxide, Strong base
NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide, Strong Base
KOH
Barium Hydroxide, Strong base
Ba(OH)2
Calcium Hydroxide, Strong base
Ca(OH)2
Ammonia, weak base
NH3
x

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