A Tentative Study of Trademark Translation Essay

Abstraction: Trademark is a particular sort of linguistic communication marks. It is the concentration of commodities’ distinguishable features. the nucleus of commodities’ civilization. and the powerful arm for an endeavor to take part in international competitions. With the development of globalisation and the addition in international trade. the merchandises of importation and exporting strengthen twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours ; the interlingual rendition of hallmarks is deriving more and more attending. Nowadays. more and more people have realized that a good interlingual rendition of a hallmark in advancing gross revenues is important to the development of international markets and net incomes doing.

Harmonizing to some cases of hallmark interlingual rendition. this thesis summarizes some chief features of hallmark. and discusses the rules and some general methods of hallmark interlingual rendition. Cardinal words: Trademark ; features ; interlingual rendition rules ; interlingual rendition methods? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? : ? ? ; ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? Introduction Harmonizing to R.

Heis. an American economic expert: “A trade name name. i. e. hallmark is a name. signifier. mark. design or a combination of them that tells who makes it or who sells it. separating that merchandise from those made or sold by others. ” ( Guo Guilong & A ; Zhang Hongbo. 2008: 100 ) A hallmark is merely like a product’s name. which is the representative of the image of a company and the symbol of quality. In advancing gross revenues. the hallmark plays a really of import function in eliciting consumer’s desire to shop. conveying the immense economic benefits and even in finding the endurance of a company.

With China’s fall ining to the WTO. China strengthens cooperation with other states. including progressively frequent economic and trade exchanges. How to present our merchandises to foreign states. convey foreign merchandises into the domestic markets and conduct a successful gross revenues concern has become rather of import. Therefore. a successful interlingual rendition of hallmark becomes pressing and necessary for the endeavors. While trademark interlingual rendition is non merely a simple transition from one codification to another. but a clear purpose of the cross-language commercial. a particular cross-cultural communicating activity.

Therefore. it is critical for us to pay more attending to the rules and methods of hallmark interlingual rendition. Chapter1 The Characteristics of Trademark Though there are assorted definitions of hallmark. they portion something in common. In general. a hallmark should be simple and easy to retrieve. and should be typical and favourably associatory. 1. 1 Simple and Easy to Remember It is a basic demand for a hallmark to be simple and easy to spell. Choosing short and simple words for composing hallmarks will assist consumers grok them more easy. because simple and short words are easy to maintain in memory.

Presents. with the fast development of economic system. more and more hallmarks flood into the market. how could consumers memorise all of them? Therefore. if a hallmark is short and easy to spell and memorise. it can busy the market easy. In fact. most well-known hallmarks are in short signifier. such as Nike. Sony. Apple and so on. 1. 2 Distinctive from Similar Merchandises We all know that the intent of utilizing hallmarks is to separate one merchandise from others. Therefore. to be typical is another of import feature of a hallmark. Trademarks. in a sense. are equal to marks and reputes.

Peculiarity can assist clients non to be easy confused with other hallmarks in the market either by sound or visual aspect. Distinctive and typical words may be used to separate the relevant merchandise from others. “Kodak” ( camera ) created by the director. is typical and easy for the possible consumers to memorise. The Chinese celebrated hallmark “Lenovo” ( ? ? ) . can easy be differentiated from other computing machines. because “Lenovo” . a coined word. can be associated with the word “legend” which is peculiar and attractive. Lenovo is more advanced than fable.

Adventurous consumers will prefer that hallmark distinguishes the relevant merchandise from other computing machines with masterful easiness. 1. 3 Arousing Favorable Association Most hallmarks can elicit favourable association. which is an indispensable characteristic of hallmark. Owing to the demand of selling. a hallmark is non merely a mark. but besides an advertizement. It should elicit the favourable association and demo the good quality to consumers. Some hallmarks have built-in significance and some have historic or cultural intensions. both of which can elicit favourable associations. “LUX” ( soap ) is a merchandise of Unilever Company.

“LUX” . a Latin word. means “sunshine” . So the consumer can tie in it with “bright sunlight and healthy skin” . This hallmark even allow people conceive of the romantic feeling on the summer beach. What’s more. consumers can tie in “LUX” with “lucks” and “luxury” from its visual aspect and pronunciation. Therefore. Unilever Company publicizes the good quality of its merchandises by the favourable association of the hallmark. From the above illustration. we can see that the built-in significance of hallmarks plays an of import portion in advertisement and can elicit people’s desirable association and allow them accept the merchandises.

Chapter 2 The Principles of Trademark Translation Trademark interlingual rendition is an art every bit good as a scientific discipline. It is a comprehensive procedure which is related to linguistics. interlingual rendition theory. intercultural communicating. aesthetics. and consumer psychological science. By and large talking. trademark interlingual rendition is a complex undertaking of compromising between the significances of hallmarks and their consumers. Therefore. to interpret hallmarks successfully. some rules should be taken into consideration. 2. 1 Reveal the Products’ Characteristics Usually. every merchandise has its designation.

Trademark interlingual rendition should demo the characteristics and maps of the merchandises. so that the purchasers could instantly believe of the use of merchandises when they see the hallmarks. As has been discussed by Xu Hui and Cheng Zhendong. the feature of a merchandise means that it has some basic elements which differ from those of others ( Xu Hui. 2004:55-56 ) . The translated trade name name should fit with the features of merchandises and show the thought of the original name. The features of merchandises non merely separate from others. but besides contain the ability to pass on with the consumers.

Therefore. in the procedure of interlingual rendition. the transcriber should hold on the features of the merchandises. so as to advance the apprehension of merchandises for consumers. and aid larn the features and maps of the merchandises by the first sight. For illustration. a hallmark of suit-dress “Hope Show” is translated into “ ? ? ” . in which the word “ ? ” immediately reflects in the merchandises for the dress class. and “ ? ” add more publicity of a happy and peaceable feeling to the goods. The interlingual rendition non merely reflects the characteristics of the merchandise but besides caters to consumers’ aesthetic gustatory sensation.

Cipher will hold involvement in merchandises which they are non acquainted. A successful hallmark interlingual rendition should hold the trait that clients can larn the class and features of the merchandise. Like “Nike” . the celebrated American trade name of athleticss wears. is the name of the goddess Victory in Greek myth. Harmonizing to its pronunciation. it can be translated into “ ? ? ” or “ ? ? ” in Chinese. However. these two names can’t uncover the features of the merchandise. but even give people a misinterpretation that “Nike” is some merchandises for adult females. “ ? ? ” is better. “ ? ” means something lasting.

As the athletics wear. lastingness is equal to good quality. “ ? ” implies that people can eventually get the better of troubles and win. conforming with the intension of Victory. These two words in Chinese show the characteristics of the merchandise absolutely. Another illustration is Procter & A ; Gamble’s antidandruff shampoo “Head & A ; Shoulders” . The interlingual rendition “ ? ? ? ” means dandruff disappears when washed. and highlights the distinguishable features of the merchandise to the full. Another two illustrations are “Sportsman” ( bike ) and “Unlsports” ( athleticss places ) .

The former is translated into “ ? ? ? ? ” . the latter into “ ? ? ? ? ” . If you are non familiar with the hallmarks. who will tie in it with their merchandises? 2. 2 Choose the Appropriate Words As the symbol of merchandises. hallmarks should be simple and easy to retrieve and apprehensible for consumers. So in order to go forth the best feeling on consumers. transcribers should take some appropriate words during the procedure of hallmark interlingual rendition. The more complicated words in the interlingual rendition. the weaker the hallmark sounds and the less memorable it becomes. For case. McDonald’s was transliterated into “ ? ? ? ? ” in mainland of China before and now is displaced by “ ? ? ? ” .

Besides. in mainland. the trade name name “Hewlett & A ; Packard” had a long interlingual rendition of “ ? ? ? – ? ? ? ” for a long period. Now. the six-character version. long and meaningless. has been replaced by the two-character version “ ? ? ” . Balancing these two versions. we can see the latter is easier to articulate and memorise. Furthermore. “ ? ? ” contains more significances and can excite more favourable vitamin E favourable association of the the productassociation of consumers. Similarly. “Head & A ; Shoulder” ( shampoo ) was transliterated into “ ? ? ? ? ?

” before and now a more compact and meaningful version “ ? ? ? ” is popular. “Stafanel” . the trade name name for dress from US. is translated into “ ? ? ? ? ” now. However. what about a two-character version “ ? ? ” ? Besides in China. “Mercedes-Benz” . the trade name name for a quality auto from Germany. was transliterated into “ ? ? ? ? · ? ? ” before and yet is put into “ ? ? ” at present. A auto from Great Britain “Rolls Royce” is translated into “ ? ? ? ? ” now alternatively of the former transliteration “ ? ? ? · ? ? ? ” . The Chinese version for “Fair Child” . a semi-conductor from the US. was “ ? ? ? ? ? ” before and now is “ ? ? ” alternatively. “ ? ? ” is easier to be pronounced and memorized than “ ? ? ? ? ” for “Nescafe” from Swiss.

The upper new versions have replaced the old renditions because they are simple and easy to be accepted by consumers. in pronunciation. signifier and significance. Easy credence by consumers eventually promotes the gross revenues of the merchandises. On the reverse. some interlingual renditions sound profane or may take to negative associations in the Chinese linguistic communication. Therefore such interlingual renditions would non be recognized and accepted by consumers. For illustrations. “Psorales” . a drug. was put into “ ? ? ? ” when merely coming into China.

No one knew what “ ? ? ? ” was and assumed it to be something discarded. It is non difficult to conceive of cipher would purchase things that sound worn and useless. Subsequently. it is replaced by “ ? ? ? ” . a more graphic and meaningful version. and its gross revenues was improved afterwards. 2. 3 Analyze the Aesthetics Features Trademark interlingual rendition should follow with the features of morphology of hallmark in the TL. “Getting the best out of the combination of beauty in significance. sound and signifier is the internal demand if we want to recognize the associated map and the advertisement map of a trade name name” .

( Tang Zhongshun. 2002:75-77 ) The translated hallmark consequently must be normative. elegant. vivid and ocular. First. “beauty of meaning” means the translated footings should bring forth an artistic construct through a favourable association of words or constituent words so that people will hold rich and nice association and elicit the outlook and chase of fantastic things. We have the typical illustrations of “Sprite” ( drink ) and “Tide” ( rinsing power ) . Since “Sprite” was translated into “ ? ? ” in Chinese. this merchandise has prevailed in China due to the superb colour and abundant intension.

The translated term “ ? ? ” in sound is non merely rather close to the pronunciation of the original trade name name. but besides makes people have a favourable association of lustration. spruceness and tidiness. demoing the kind and characteristic of the merchandise. Second. “beauty of sound” means a trade name name of the original and its translated version should fundamentally portion the same or similar pronunciation with the quality of plangency. rhythmization and musicalness so that an aesthetically pleasing enjoyment is gained in hearing that trade name name ( Zhang Quan. 2004:77-79 ) .

There are many successfully translated versions to the full reflect the beauty of sounds. Take “OMO” ( rinsing power ) and “Clean & A ; Clear” ( facial cleansing agent ) for illustration. As “OMO” is translated into “ ? ? ” . it sounds like a compliment “great” in English. The translated term of “Clean & A ; Clear” . “ ? ? ? ? ” makes good usage of alliterative rhythmic anadiplosis in order to accomplish a combination of phonic beat and vitality.

Last. “beauty of form” means the translated hallmarks should do the best of concision and simplicity in construction. viz. utilizing few syllables. readability and comprehensibility of the words and avoiding hard and seldom-using words. Peoples prefer two or three words of translated versions because this construction better agreements with the referential usage and aesthetic psychological science. There are many celebrated translated trade name names with the above characteristic. such as “Head & A ; Shoulders” ( shampoo ) . “Avon” ( decorative ) . “Johnsons” ( pick ) and so on. Particularly the translated version “ ? ? ?

” is full of the features of conciseness. elegance and color stand foring the characteristic and map of the merchandise. 2. 4 Pay Attention to Cultural Differences Edward Taylor defined civilization as “a complex whole which includes cognition. beliefs. art. ethical motives. jurisprudence. usage. and any other capablenesss and wonts acquired by persons as members of a society. ” ( Taylor Edward B. 1871:36 ) Namely. the major factors lending to the devising of civilization are the faiths. wonts. imposts and history. which vary considerable from states to states.

As a bearer of civilization. linguistic communication is an of import portion of civilization which reflects the features of a state. which non merely includes the nation’s historical and cultural background. but besides contains the national mentality on life. life styles and ways of believing. From the relationship between linguistic communication and civilization. it is obvious that interlingual rendition is non merely a procedure of reassigning the beginning linguistic communication into the mark linguistic communication. but besides a procedure of a common communicating and exchange between different civilizations.

Therefore. during the procedure of hallmark interlingual rendition. as linguistic communication and civilization are inseparable from each other. it is indispensable to pay more attending to cultural differences. 2. 4. 1. Differences in Religions Religions. myths. fables. and images from literary plants are an in-separable portion of civilization. They are profoundly rooted in civilization and at the same clip lend a great trade to the formation of people’s constructs about certain objects.

These elements. when involved in trade name name interlingual rendition. call for the translator’s sensitiveness every bit good as flexibleness in cultural version in order that functional equality could be attained between the beginning trade name name and the mark trade name name. For illustration. Goldlion was non well-liked when it foremost appeared in the Chinese market with the name“ ? ? ” . It is said that many people would non purchase that merchandise merely because the name sounds really close to“ ? ? ”in some Chinese idioms. Other people believe that the name was non good accepted because it resembles the sound of“ ? ?

” . which is besides a tabu thought in China. particularly in Hong Kong. where people display a peculiar liking for things with luck-bearing names. Anyway. the merchandise did non sell good until the new name“ ? ? ? ”was adopted by Zeng Xianzi. a celebrated Chinese enterpriser. He skilfully took apart the beginning trade name name into“gold”and“lion” . The first portion was literally put into“ ? ”to be faithful to the original. while the latter adopted the method of semantic transliteration and was put into“ ? ? ” . meaning“bringing profit” . Such an auspicious name has helped a batch in constructing up the good celebrity of the merchandise. 2. 4. 2 Differences in History.

Every state has its ain history. In the history. many historical incidents happened. These incidents have carved into the civilization and have become a portion of it. Bing incognizant of the history when interpreting a hallmark will take to failure. “Opium” is a trade name of aroma. Actually in the western dead end ention to hich reflects nd nice associationame. but besides makes ation. things. he producr. ture. such sort of hallmark name is popular. such as Poison. another aroma trade name. However in China. “ ? ? ” has a negative significance. The Chinese people experienced the black history related to opium since 1840. when the ill-famed Opium War broke out.

Without the consideration of history. this trade name encountered the opposition from the Chinese consumers. Finally. the hallmark name “ ? ? ” was banned in China. 2. 4. 3 Differences in Customs and Habits Custom is one of the subdivisions of civilization reflecting the specific features of a state or parts of the state. It is the deposit of long history and closely linked with the milieus and the manner of life. So some imposts and wonts exist in one civilization but may be absent in another. which brings about an obstruction to Chinese-English trade name name interlingual rendition.

Many Chinese trade name names come from Chinese usage. One of the most celebrated rice vinos named “ ? ? ? ” ( Daughter Wine ) is produced in Shaoxing. Zhejiang Province of China. To Chinese clients. the trade name name represents the happy events in one’s life. while they can non elicit the same feeling in westerners if translated literally and that will perfectly do cultural loss. because the western consumers do non cognize about the usage of the ancient Shaoxing. It is said that in antediluvian Shaoxing a jar of this vino was buried under the land when a girl was brought into the universe.

When the miss grew up and became a bride. the jar was dug out and presented to the invitees go toing the nuptials. As the vino was uncapped. the odor of the vino spread far. and all invitees became aroused and congratulated the parents. so it was named “ ? ? ? ” . When a transcriber translate the trade grade. it is really necessary to uncover the cultural information of the trade name names. It is non merely easy for clients to cognize about the beginning of the vino but accept it rapidly. because any one from any state would wish to every bit appreciate the beautiful things. bask the happy feeling and desire success.

Therefore. in order to uncover the cultural information of this trade name name. possibly the interlingual rendition “Daughter’s Wedding Wine” is more suited. 2. 4. 4 Differences in the Attitudes towards Animals and Numbers People populating in different civilizations hold different attitudes and beliefs towards animate beings and Numberss. What is considered a good portents in one civilization may non typify the same in another. Therefore. it is by and large advisable that people should non utilize this type of words to call the comparative merchandises. and when one translates bing trade name names of this type. cultural version may assist him happen a more proper mark trade name name.

The troubles caused by such words in trade name name interlingual rendition may be illustrated with the undermentioned illustration. As we know. the Chinese people frequently associate chiropterans with good fortune because the Chinese character “ ? ”sounds the same as“ ? ” ( meaning“good fortune” ) . Some Chinese fables even say that when a chiropteran lives 100 old ages. it turns white in colour and bents upside down from a tree. and eating that chiropteran could convey a individual length of service. A ruddy chiropteran foretells even better fortune for“ ? ? ”sounds precisely the same with“ ? ? ” ( being supremely fortunate ) . Some Chinese stick to the belief so much that they name their products“ ? ?

” . But if the transcriber adapts his lingual picks to the different attitude towards the animate being in European civilizations. he would non consider“ Bat” a good name. for chiropteran is regarded as an highly evil portents in many European folklores. Possibly interlingual renditions like “Fortunes” would be better. Besides. Numberss bring about different associations. By and large talking. each civilization has certain Numberss believed to be either “lucky” or “ominous” . but this may frequently differ from single to single. Let’s take the interlingual rendition of “7-up” . a trade name of soft drink. as an illustration.

The figure “7” is thought to be a lucky figure to many English talkers. but it does non hold the same significance in Chinese. Sing the cultural difference. the transcriber. in order to make a similar consequence among the Chinese consumers. worked out the name“ ? ? ” . The name is rather satisfactory because its first part“ ? ”remains faithful to the beginning trade name name without conveying any unfavourable significance. and its 2nd part“ ? ”conveys the significance of“happiness and good luck” . and hence makes up for the loss of intension in the number“7” .

Chapter 3 General Methods in Trademark Translation Peter Newmark one time said that different interlingual rendition schemes should be adopted harmonizing to the different maps of different plants ( Mou Yan. 2008 ) . It is well-known that hallmark interlingual rendition is non merely to convey the cultural information of the beginning civilization. but besides to put up a good image in the mark civilization. and eventually to pull the people in the mark market to the merchandise. In order to accomplish these intents. transcribers should follow the undermentioned methods in the procedure of hallmark interlingual rendition. 3. 1 Actual Translation

Actual interlingual rendition. referred to as semantic interlingual rendition by Peter Newmark. is a manner of interlingual rendition which aims at continuing the most possible cultural messages ( including the communicative facet of civilization. such as. the formal elements of the SL ) of the beginning text at the forfeit of the formal elements of the mark linguistic communication and sometimes even the intelligibility of the mark text ( Zheng Shengtao. 1994 ) . Since the formation of words in the Chinese linguistic communication is different from that in the Western linguistic communications. it is really impossible to accomplish hallmark interlingual rendition by word-for-word interlingual rendition in most instances.

Peter Newmark favors “literal translation” excessively. He says. “I am slightly of a ‘literalist’ because I am for truth and accuracy” . ( Newmark Peter. 2001:62 ) Although sometimes actual interlingual rendition may make something alien or even bizarre for the mark linguistic communication readers. it will bit by bit be accepted by the mark linguistic communication and its civilization. Equally long as the translated trade name names from foreign linguistic communication can be understood and accepted by the mark consumers. actual interlingual rendition is the best manner for advancing cultural exchange through the trade name name interlingual rendition in China.

As the trade name name interlingual rendition is to reassign between civilizations. transcribers should do the mark consumers understand the beginning civilization. Some people say there is a better manner for transcribers to near the original. That is actual interlingual rendition. which can maintain the national characteristic. For illustration. some traditional trade name names. which are really familiar to the Westerners even to the universe like “ ? ? ” ( The Yangtze River ) . “ ? ? ” ( the Yellow River ) . and “ ? ? ” ( the Great Wall ) are chosen by the manufacturers. as they are the symbols of Chinese fantastic natural history.

When transcribers translate them. they have no demand to make any interlingual rendition. As these trade name names are well-known to the universe. and these Chinese features of trade name names are fresh and cryptic to the Westerners. it is easy to arouse the mark consumers’ buying desire. Translators can follow actual interlingual rendition. The trade name names “ ? ? ” . “ ? ? ? ” . “ ? ? ? ” carry our ancient cultural information. When transcribers translate them into the Western linguistic communications. they should maintain actual interlingual rendition and add some notes. in order to allow the mark consumers know the beginning civilization.

Actual interlingual rendition besides keeps the general signifier and keeps the construction of the beginning linguistic communication. Today. Chinese civilization are acquiring more and more popular in the universe. and more and more Westerners are eager to analyze our linguistic communication in order to larn our long history. Therefore. the sort of interlingual rendition is a necessary manner to allow more people learn our traditional civilization. On the other manus. in the English-speaking states. there are some trade name names which can be literally translated. For illustration. the really celebrated trade name name “White cat” is translated into “ ? ? ” .

And the trade name name “Camel” is translated into “ ? ? ” . All these translated trade name names are really suited for the merchandises. and the merchandises will really likely be loved by the consumers in the mark market. Here actual interlingual rendition is non the same as word-for-word interlingual rendition. Word-for-word interlingual rendition is to stiffly reproduce every word in the procedure of interlingual rendition. Strictly talking. it is non a interlingual rendition method. But. actual interlingual rendition is a accomplishment of interlingual rendition. even if there do be some add-ons or omissions while the kernel of the original is non destroyed.

Actual interlingual rendition makes the mark linguistic communication more smooth and acceptable. Although actual interlingual rendition can most perchance maintain the cultural messages of the beginning linguistic communication. it sometimes will do misinterpretation of the cultural messages or make unintelligible significances. Let’s take Sprite as an illustration. If the word “Sprite” is translated literally or straight. it might be “ ? ? ” . The version would set Chinese consumers into great confusion because “ ? ? ” is a human-like monster in Chinese civilization. Thus transcribers should see other methods.

Actual interlingual rendition is adopted as the most ideal interlingual rendition technique in reproducing images because it can continue the original images every bit much as possible. Some English looks have oning word-for-word similarity to some Chinese looks may intend something rather different. In this instance. transcribers should travel deeper to happen out what these English looks truly mean ; otherwise errors will be made in actual interlingual rendition. 3. 2 Transliteration Transliteration in a narrow sense is a function from one system of composing into another and it is largely based on the pronunciation.

Transliteration efforts to be lossless. so that an informed reader should be able to retrace the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. To accomplish this aim. transliteration may specify complex conventions to cover with letters in a beginning book that do non match with letters in a end book. Transliteration means that hallmarks are translated into similar names in pronunciation harmonizing to the original 1s ( Li Yi. 2009:232-234 ) It is by and large believed that the acceptance of this method can assist to accomplish assorted intents.

Some hallmarks obtained in this manner can efficaciously remind the clients of their authoritative position. Such hallmarks are easier for mark consumers to articulate and memorise. Still. some hallmarks are intentionally transliterated in order to provide to the foreign consumers’ general penchant for foreign goods because some thus-translated hallmarks sound more foreign-like. The universe celebrated hallmark “Intel” means: the ability to larn and ground and the capacity for cognition and comprehension. Now you see why it is translated into “ ? ? ? ” which sounds foreign-like and is easy to memorise and read.

Meanwhile. it indicates the feature of the merchandise. Another illustration is the interlingual rendition of “Ya Ya” . “ ? ? ” ( down wear ) is transliterated into “Ya Ya” alternatively of “Duck” . The translated hallmark “Ya Ya” is a catchy name that can carry through the imitating map of hallmark efficaciously. These two illustrations show the features of being simple and easy to articulate and memorise and every bit good obey the rule of aesthetics. Though transliteration embodies the sound beauty of the original 1. the translated hallmark enunciations should be chosen carefully.

During transliteration. it is of import to obey the features of eliciting desirable association. “Philip” was one time translated into “ ? ? ? ” which sounds more similar to the original one than “ ? ? ? ” . But the three characters “ ? ? ? ” will elicit unfavourable association. Peoples prefer good and appropriate words. and therefore. when utilizing transliteration method. transcribers should make their best to take beautiful words. For illustration. “Lancome” ( cosmetics ) is put into “ ? ? ” .

The two Chinese characters are beautiful and can be associated with an elegant adult female with certain religious qualities. These two words “ ? ? ” are ever connected with beautiful things. such as “ ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ” . That’s why Chinese females have a fondness for “Lancome” . In interlingual rendition pattern. we find that English hallmarks are extremely consistent in letters or words and can be pronounced easy in one breath. while the transliteration of Chinese hallmarks are broken into independent words in conformity with the specific Chinese characters. So the English version frequently lacks coherency.

To avoid the disadvantage of transliteration in rigorous conformity with the standard Chinese pronunciation. we can utilize transliteration method flexibly. To some extent. we can interpret a hallmark harmonizing to the local pronunciation. The undermentioned illustrations successfully avoid the above job. “ ? ? ” ( icebox ) is translated into “Frestech” alternatively of “Xin Fei” . “Frestech” is composed of “fresh” and “technology” . which is consistent in construction and pronunciation. What’s more. it besides implies that the merchandise is produced with advanced engineering. “ ? ? ” ( tonic nutrient ) means that felicity is coming. proposing the merchandise will convey felicity and wellness to consumers.

The English version “Life” caters to westerners’ psychological science and is easier for them to articulate and spell. 3. 3 Free Translation “Free interlingual rendition reproduces the affair without the mode. or the content without the signifier of the original. Usually it is a paraphrasis longer than the original. ” In order to take advantage of the mark linguistic communication and do translated trade name name more idiomatic and acceptable. some fanciful trade name names are freely translated.

Free interlingual rendition can pass on the information of merchandises clearly and vividly. It will do a strong feeling on the mark linguistic communication consumers and elicit their response. There are many successful illustrations to demo this method. For illustration. “Ariel” ( rinsing pulverization ) is rendered as “ ? ? ” . The word “ ? ” means “clean” and “clear” . So “ ? ? ” indicates the ace cleansing capableness of the rinsing pulverization. Similarity. “Safeguard” ( soap ) is non literally translated into “ ? ? ” . but “ ? ? ? ” . The interlingual rendition describes the product’s map and properties.

“Rejoice” ( shampoo ) is non translated into “ ? ? ” . but “ ? ? ” . significance softness and polish. “Slek” ( shampoo ) is besides rendered as “ ? ? ” through free interlingual rendition. “ ? ? ” in Chinese can be a noun every bit good as a verb phrase. If “ ? ? ” is interpreted as a noun. it means beautiful buds. connoting ladies will be like an elegant bud after utilizing the shampoo ; if “ ? ? ” is interpreted as a verb. it means nurturing a bud to do it come out. This implies the shampoo can do hair glossier. “Zest” ( soap ) is paraphrased as “ ? ? ” through free interlingual rendition. “ ? ” is a really popular word in China. which brings the soap a stylish component.

This interlingual rendition is improved from the original one “ ? ? ” in actual method. “ ? ? ” is more proper and suited to run into the demands of the young person who are the mark clients. 3. 4 Broad Translation plus Transliteration In order to make the standards of hallmark translation—beauty in significance and sound. and to do the translated versions possess the general characteristics of good trade name names. we can utilize the combination of broad interlingual rendition and transliteration to interpret trade name names. since in many instances broad or transliteration can non make the occupation along.

A good interlingual rendition of a trade name name should non merely be similar to the original sound but besides reflect the intension of the original. The combination of broad interlingual rendition and transliteration may accomplish dual intents. as the message of the trade name name will be more vividly reflected so that it will be more impressive to steer ingestion. Here we take some illustrations to appreciate the virtues of this sort of method. For illustration. “Pampers”—diapers from P & A ; G. is rich in significance and clear in pronunciation. The translated trade name name “ ? ? ?

” has got a balance between the significance and the pronunciation. The trade name name of a medical specialty “Bufferin” is translated into “ ? ? ? ” . The translated trade name name does non state us what the medical specialty is. but it forms a sound which is really near to that of the beginning trade name name. A drink named “Milo” is translated into “ ? ? ” . which non merely makes us cognize that the pronunciation of the translated word is near to that of the original. but tells us what the merchandise is made from and the belongings of the merchandise.

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