Analysis of Stress of Employees
Sub Part 1: Detailed description of the information set is as follows:
- Idaho: ID is the capable ID that is updated to supply an designation figure to the full data-set. The variable type is distinct and degree of measuring is nominal.
- Age: Age is the entire age ( in old ages ) of the persons involved in the sample. Age represents a Continuous variable type and the degree of measuring is Ratio graduated table.
- Gender: Gender is the class of the population which bifurcates the information into males and females. Gender information type is nominal degree of measuring and the variable type is categorical.
- Produ: Produ stands for Productivity Measure. A Productivity step has a variable type of uninterrupted informations and the degree of measuring is Ratio graduated table.
- Satis: Satis stands for Job Satisfaction Measure. A Job Satisfaction step has a variable type of categorical informations and the degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Optim: Optim stands for Overall Optimism Measure. An Overall Optimism step has a variable type of categorical informations and degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Openn: Openn stands for Communication Openness Measure. A Communication Openness Measure has a variable type of categorical informations and degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Stress: Stress stands for Stress graduated table. This step has a variable type of categorical informations and the degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Resilience: Resilience stands for Resilience graduated table. This step has a variable type of categorical informations and the degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Balan: Balan stands for Stress/Resilience balance step. The Stress/Resilience balance step has a variable type of uninterrupted informations and the degree of measuring is ordinal graduated table.
- Agegrp: Agegrp stands for Age Group. The Age Group step has a variable type of categorical informations and the degree of measuring is ordinal.
- Ill: Ill bases for Extended Sick Leave last 6 months. The Extended Sick Leave last 6 months step has a variable type of categorical informations and the degree of measuring is nominal.
This dataset is a combination of Qualitative and Quantitative informations. A Quantitative information is bifurcated into Nominal, Ordinal and Binary types while Quantitative informations is bifurcated into Continuous and Discrete informations. A Nominal information set has Variables with no built-in order or superior sequence. Examples are Gender, Race etc. An Ordinal information set has Variables with an ordered series. Examples are Blood Group, Performance etc. A Binary information set has Variables with merely two options. Examples are Pass/Fail, Yes/No etc.
Discrete information is besides known as Attribute information. Discrete information is information that can be categorized into a categorization. This information is based on counts and has finite figure of values is possible and the values can non be subdivided meaningfully. Example is figure of Partss damaged in cargo.
Continuous informations is information that can be measured on a continuum or graduated table. Continuous informations can hold about any numeral value and can be meaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increases. Examples are Length, Size, breadth, etc.
The information set provided in the illustration looks like that of an employee study for an organisation. It captures assorted facets of an employee such as his / her age, gender, productiveness step, occupation satisfaction graduated table, overall optimism step, occupation satisfaction graduated table, communicating openness graduated table, stress graduated table, resiliency graduated table, stress/resilience balance step, age group and extended ill foliages taken by the employee in the last 6 months.
Sub Part 2:
Summary of Categorical Variable:
Gender |
No. of Employees – Gender wise |
Female |
234 |
Male |
169 |
Bar Chart:
Pie Chart:
Summary of the informations:
The comparing between Males and Females indicates the male vs. female ratio in the organisation. The saloon graph indicates that the figure of males are less than females i.e. the figure of males are 169 against the entire figure of females which are 234. In analogue, the pie chart indicates that male vs. female ratio i.e. Male: Female is 41.9 % :58.1 % .
A pie chart is used to expose the proportion of each information class relation to the whole information set.
A saloon chart is used to compare some step of information classs. Each saloon can stand for a count of a class, a map of a class ( such as the mean, amount, or standard divergence ) , or drumhead values from a tabular array.
Summary of Numerical Variables:
The sum-up of Job Satisfaction Scale is created utilizing Graphical Summary.
The above graphical sum-up indicates the followers:
Anderson-Darling Normality Test indicates that the information is non-normal.
Anderson Darling Normality Test generates a normal chance secret plan and performs a hypothesis trial to analyze whether or non the observations follow a normal distribution. For the normalcy trial, the hypotheses are,
H0: informations follow a normal distribution vs. H1: informations do non follow a normal distribution.
Mean of the information is 5.5898 and standard divergence is 2.2426 whereas discrepancy is 5.0292. Median is 4.8400 and Range is Maximum-Minimum i.e. 16.1100 – 2.6800 = 13.43.
The percentiles are as follows:
- 1^{st}Quartile = 25 % = 4.3800
- Median = 50 % = 4.8400
- 3^{rd}Quartile = 75 % = 5.6075
The sum-up of the information indicates that the information is non-normal. In this scenario, average becomes meaningless and we need to take average into consideration. The satisfaction degree is at a median of 4.84 which is likely on a graduated table of 0 to 20 where 0 is Not Satisfied and 20 is Wholly Satisfied. The mensurating graduated table is an ordinal graduated table. A value of 4.84 indicates that the employees are non really satisfied in the organisation. Although there are a few information points which are closer to 20, even so as bulk of the information points are closer to the value of 4, it indicates that the satisfaction degrees between employees is really low. There could be multiple grounds for it and the organisation needs to look into the grounds for these low satisfaction tonss in order to maintain away from organisation jobs such as abrasion, absenteeism and other such current jobs.
Sub Part 3:
Part A: Atleast one correlativity affecting two variables.
In this illustration, we will happen if Productivity is impacted by Stress Level i.e. is at that place a relationship between productiveness and emphasis degree. Both the variables are uninterrupted informations sets and we will so be able to utilize either correlativity analysis or arrested development analysis. Let’s usage arrested development analysis to place if the relationship is important and the fitted line secret plan will be used to understand the relationship diagrammatically.
Here is the analysis:
Fitted Line Plot:
Arrested development Analysis: Productivity versus Stress Level
The arrested development equation is
Productivity = 244.1 – 0.9518 Stress Level
S = 44.0953 R-Sq = 1.8 % R-Sq ( adj ) = 1.6 %
Analysis of Discrepancy
Beginning DF SS MS F P
Arrested development 1 14379 14379.0 7.40 0.007
Mistake 400 777759 1944.4
Entire 401 792138
Fitted Line: Productivity versus Stress Level
The arrested development analysis has the p-value which is less than 0.05 bespeaking that there exists no relationship between the two variables: Productivity and Stress degree. The fitted line secret plan besides does non hold many of its informations points on the Best tantrum line. Therefore, a stress degree of persons does non impact productiveness.
Sub Part 3:
Part B: Atleast one correlativity affecting three variables.
In this illustration, we will happen if age and communicating openness graduated table have an impact on productiveness i.e. is at that place a relationship between productiveness, age of employees and communicating openness graduated table. All the three variables are uninterrupted in nature and we will be able to utilize either correlativity analysis or arrested development analysis. Let’s usage arrested development analysis to place if the relationship is important.
Below is the Regression Analysis Output:
Arrested development Analysis: Productivity versus Age of Emplo, Communicatio
The arrested development equation is
Productivity_1 = 136 + 0.605 Age of Employees
+ 0.520 Communication Openness Scale
Predictor Coef SE Coef T P
Changeless 136.39 14.42 9.46 0.000
Age of Employees 0.6050 0.1316 4.60 0.000
Communication Openness Scale 0.5197 0.1587 3.28 0.001
S = 42.8871 R-Sq = 7.9 % R-Sq ( adj ) = 7.4 %
Analysis of Discrepancy
Beginning DF SS MS F P
Arrested development 2 62060 31030 16.87 0.000
Residual Error 394 724685 1839
Entire 396 786745
Beginning DF Seq SS
Age of Employees 1 42327
Communication Openness Scale 1 19733
Unusual Observations
Age of
Obs Employees Productivity_1 Fit SE Fit Residual St Resid
4 67.0 78.00 202.91 6.42 -124.91 -2.95R
27 40.0 215.00 223.99 6.62 -8.99 -0.21 Ten
59 51.0 443.00 218.18 3.19 224.82 5.26R
73 48.0 134.00 227.79 6.20 -93.79 -2.21R
77 61.0 300.00 213.83 2.99 86.17 2.01R
102 31.0 293.00 201.92 3.23 91.08 2.13R
129 60.0 318.00 210.11 3.34 107.89 2.52R
143 36.0 347.00 202.87 2.64 144.13 3.37R
157 58.0 115.00 207.34 3.51 -92.34 -2.16R
160 47.0 118.00 204.32 2.45 -86.32 -2.02R
208 63.0 342.00 220.24 3.08 121.76 2.85R
233 76.0 159.00 209.91 6.67 -50.91 -1.20 Ten
248 31.0 305.00 186.33 4.67 118.67 2.78R
276 50.0 293.00 205.62 2.57 87.38 2.04R
289 56.0 404.00 216.00 2.55 188.00 4.39R
299 30.0 160.00 218.98 7.28 -58.98 -1.40 Ten
312 34.0 300.00 188.14 4.53 111.86 2.62R
321 28.0 298.00 211.02 5.60 86.98 2.05R
333 22.0 172.00 174.65 6.68 -2.65 -0.06 Ten
342 74.0 306.00 218.58 4.61 87.42 2.05R
354 49.0 307.00 207.61 2.24 99.39 2.32R
372 35.0 337.00 201.22 2.67 135.78 3.17R
375 43.0 322.00 213.34 3.24 108.66 2.54R
380 38.0 302.00 202.00 2.46 100.00 2.34R
R denotes an observation with a big standardised remainder.
Ten denotes an observation whose X value gives it big influence.
The p-value in the above analysis is less than 0.05 which indicates that productiveness is non impacted by age and communicating openness graduated table.
Choice of trial: Both the trials are used to place whether a relationship exists between two or more than two variables.
Sub Part 4:
Is there a important difference in End-user emphasis tonss for males andfemales?
We can look into if there is a important difference in the End-User Stress tonss for Males and Females utilizing a 2-Sample t-test. A 2-Sample t-test trials the difference between agencies of two samples of different populations. Before executing the 2-Sample t-test, it is imperative to execute Homogeneity of Variance trial. Homogeneity of Variance helps in placing if there is a important fluctuation between the discrepancies of both the samples.
HOV Test is as follows:
Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Discrepancy of Stress Level for Males = Variance of Stress Level for Females.
- Alternate Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{1}: Discrepancy of Stress Level for Males ? Variance of Stress Level for Females.
Trial for Equal Discrepancies: emphasis versus gender_1
95 % Bonferroni assurance intervals for standard divergences
gender_1 N Lower StDev Upper
Female 234 5.87761 6.48956 7.23775
Male 169 5.38553 6.04608 6.88321
F-Test ( normal distribution )
Test statistic = 1.15, p-value = 0.329
Levene ‘s Test ( any uninterrupted distribution )
Test statistic = 3.07, p-value = 0.081
Trial for Equal Discrepancies for emphasis
The HOV trial F-test indicates that the p-value is & A ; gt ; 0.05, this means that we fail to reject the void hypothesis and the discrepancy of Sample 1 is equal to the discrepancy of Sample 2. In other words, emphasis degrees of males and females have equal discrepancies.
2-Sample t-test:
The Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Mean of Stress Level for Males = Mean of Stress Level for Females
- Alternate Hypothesis: H1: Mean of Stress degree for Males ? Mean of Stress degree for Females
Two-Sample T-Test and CI: emphasis, gender_1
Two-sample T for emphasis
gender_1 N Mean StDev SE Mean
Female 234 37.84 6.49 0.42
Male 169 38.43 6.05 0.47
Difference = mu ( Female ) – mu ( Male )
Estimate for difference: -0.594675
95 % CI for difference: ( -1.832469, 0.643120 )
T-Test of difference = 0 ( V non = ) : T-Value = -0.94 P-Value = 0.345 DF = 376
Boxplot of emphasis by gender_1
P-value of 2-Sample t-test is & A ; gt ; 0.05 which indicates that there is no difference in the emphasis degrees of Males and Females.
b.Is there a important difference between the productiveness of Males vs. Females?
We can look into if there is a important difference in the Productivity between Males and Females utilizing a 2-Sample t-test. A 2-Sample t-test trials the difference between agencies of two samples of different populations. Before executing the 2-Sample t-test, it is imperative to execute Homogeneity of Variance trial. Homogeneity of Variance helps in placing if there is a important fluctuation between the discrepancies of both the samples.
HOV Test is as follows:
Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Discrepancy of Productivity for Males = Variance of Productivity for Females.
- Alternate Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{1}: Discrepancy of Productivity for Males ? Variance of Productivity for Females.
Trial for Equal Discrepancies: Productivity_2 versus Gender_2
95 % Bonferroni assurance intervals for standard divergences
Gender_2 N Lower StDev Upper
Female 234 39.6219 43.7471 48.7907
Male 168 40.5330 45.5194 51.8432
F-Test ( normal distribution )
Test statistic = 0.92, p-value = 0.574
Levene ‘s Test ( any uninterrupted distribution )
Test statistic = 0.05, p-value = 0.825
Trial for Equal Discrepancies for Productivity_2
The HOV trial F-test indicates that the p-value is & A ; gt ; 0.05, this means that we fail to reject the void hypothesis and the discrepancy of Sample 1 is equal to the discrepancy of Sample 2. In other words, productiveness of males and females have equal discrepancies.
2-Sample t-test:
The Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Mean of Productivity for Males = Mean of Productivity for Females
- Alternate Hypothesis: H1: Mean of Productivity for Males ? Mean of Productivity for Females
Two-Sample T-Test and CI: Productivity_2, Gender_2
Two-sample T for Productivity_2
Gender_2 N Mean StDev SE Mean
Female 234 208.4 43.7 2.9
Male 168 207.0 45.5 3.5
Difference = mu ( Female ) – mu ( Male )
Estimate for difference: 1.41209
95 % CI for difference: ( -7.49535, 10.31953 )
T-Test of difference = 0 ( V non = ) : T-Value = 0.31 P-Value = 0.755 DF = 351
Boxplot of Productivity_2 by Gender_2
P-value of 2-Sample t-test is & A ; gt ; 0.05 which indicates that there is no difference in the productiveness of Males and Females.
c.Is there a important difference in Satisfaction degrees between Males and Females?
We can look into if there is a important difference in the Satisfaction Levels between Males and Females utilizing a 2-Sample t-test. A 2-Sample t-test trials the difference between agencies of two samples of different populations. Before executing the 2-Sample t-test, it is imperative to execute Homogeneity of Variance trial. Homogeneity of Variance helps in placing if there is a important fluctuation between the discrepancies of both the samples.
HOV Test is as follows:
Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Discrepancy of Satisfaction Levels for Males = Variance of Satisfaction Levels for Females.
- Alternate Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{1}: Discrepancy of Satisfaction Levels for Males ? Variance of Satisfaction Levels for Females.
Trial for Equal Discrepancies: Satisfaction Level versus Gender_3
95 % Bonferroni assurance intervals for standard divergences
Gender_3 N Lower StDev Upper
Female 228 1.93008 2.13367 2.38326
Male 162 2.12191 2.38778 2.72645
F-Test ( normal distribution )
Test statistic = 0.80, p-value = 0.119
Levene ‘s Test ( any uninterrupted distribution )
Test statistic = 0.49, p-value = 0.484
Trial for Equal Discrepancies for Satisfaction Level
The HOV trial F-test indicates that the p-value is & A ; gt ; 0.05, this means that we fail to reject the void hypothesis and the discrepancy of Sample 1 is equal to the discrepancy of Sample 2. In other words, Satisfaction degree of males and females have equal discrepancies.
2-Sample t-test:
The Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis for this trial is as follows:
- Null Hypothesis: Hydrogen_{0}: Mean of Satisfaction Levels for Males = Mean of Satisfaction Levels for Females
- Alternate Hypothesis: H1: Mean of Satisfaction Levels for Males ? Mean of Satisfaction Levels for Females
Two-Sample T-Test and CI: Satisfaction Level, Gender_3
Two-sample T for Satisfaction Level
Gender_3 N Mean StDev SE Mean
Female 228 5.49 2.13 0.14
Male 162 5.72 2.39 0.19
Difference = mu ( Female ) – mu ( Male )
Estimate for difference: -0.229732
95 % CI for difference: ( -0.691802, 0.232338 )
T-Test of difference = 0 ( V non = ) : T-Value = -0.98 P-Value = 0.329 DF = 321
Boxplot of Satisfaction Level by Gender_3
P-value of 2-Sample t-test is & A ; gt ; 0.05 which indicates that there is no difference in the Satisfaction Levels between Males and Females.